Learn More
Increasing evidence has suggested that inflammation in the brain is closely associated with the pathogenesis of several degenerative neurologic disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and AIDS dementia. The hallmark of brain inflammation is the activation of glial cells, especially(More)
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) damages dopaminergic neurons as seen in Parkinson's disease. Although increasing evidence suggests an involvement of glia in MPTP neurotoxicity, the nature of this involvement remains unclear. Exploiting the advantage of cell culture systems, we demonstrated that microglia, but not astroglia, significantly(More)
The etiology of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown. Increasing evidence has suggested a role for inflammation in the brain in the pathogenesis of PD. However, it has not been clearly demonstrated whether microglial activation, the most integral part of the brain inflammatory process, will result in a delayed and progressive degeneration of(More)
alpha-Synuclein (SYN) is the major component of Lewy bodies, the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Missense mutations and multiplications of the SYN gene cause autosomal dominant inherited PD. Thus, SYN is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. However, the mechanism whereby SYN promotes neurodegeneration remains unclear. Familial PD(More)
Increasing evidence has suggested an important role for environmental factors such as exposure to pesticides in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In experimental animals the exposure to a common herbicide, rotenone, induces features of parkinsonism; mechanistically, rotenone-induced destruction of dopaminergic neurons has been attributed to its(More)
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a devastating movement disorder characterized by selective degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Neurodegeneration usually starts in the fifth decade of life and progresses over 5-10 years before reaching the fully symptomatic disease state. Despite decades of intense research, the etiology of(More)
What drives the gradual degeneration of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease, remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that persistent neuroinflammation was indispensible for such a neurodegenerative process. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and rotenone,(More)
Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of chronic, progressive disorders characterized by the gradual loss of neurons in discrete areas of the central nervous system (CNS). The mechanism(s) underlying their progressive nature remains unknown but a timely and well-controlled inflammatory reaction is essential for the integrity and proper function of the CNS.(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a profound movement disorder resulting from progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Although its etiology remains unknown, increasing evidence suggests the involvement of multiple factors such as environmental toxins and genetic susceptibilities in the pathogenesis of PD. In this study using(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The gradual, irreversible loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra is the signature lesion of PD. Clinical symptoms of PD become apparent when 50-60% of nigral dopamine neurons are lost. PD progresses insidiously for 5-7 years (preclinical period) and then continues to(More)