Learn More
The etiology of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown. Increasing evidence has suggested a role for inflammation in the brain in the pathogenesis of PD. However, it has not been clearly demonstrated whether microglial activation, the most integral part of the brain inflammatory process, will result in a delayed and progressive degeneration of(More)
Increasing evidence has suggested an important role for environmental factors such as exposure to pesticides in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In experimental animals the exposure to a common herbicide, rotenone, induces features of parkinsonism; mechanistically, rotenone-induced destruction of dopaminergic neurons has been attributed to its(More)
Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of chronic, progressive disorders characterized by the gradual loss of neurons in discrete areas of the central nervous system (CNS). The mechanism(s) underlying their progressive nature remains unknown but a timely and well-controlled inflammatory reaction is essential for the integrity and proper function of the CNS.(More)
What drives the gradual degeneration of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease, remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that persistent neuroinflammation was indispensible for such a neurodegenerative process. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and rotenone,(More)
Increasing evidence has suggested an important role for environmental toxins such as pesticides in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Chronic exposure to rotenone, a common herbicide, reproduces features of Parkinsonism in rats. Mechanistically, rotenone-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration has been associated with both its inhibition of(More)
Increasing evidence has suggested that inflammation in the brain is closely associated with the pathogenesis of several degenerative neurologic disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and AIDS dementia. The hallmark of brain inflammation is the activation of glial cells, especially(More)
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) damages dopaminergic neurons as seen in Parkinson's disease. Although increasing evidence suggests an involvement of glia in MPTP neurotoxicity, the nature of this involvement remains unclear. Exploiting the advantage of cell culture systems, we demonstrated that microglia, but not astroglia, significantly(More)
Oxidative stress is a key pathologic factor in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases (AD, PD). The failure of free-radical-scavenging antioxidants in clinical trials pinpoints an urgent need to identify and to block major sources of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. As a major superoxide-producing enzyme complex(More)
alpha-Synuclein (SYN) is the major component of Lewy bodies, the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Missense mutations and multiplications of the SYN gene cause autosomal dominant inherited PD. Thus, SYN is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. However, the mechanism whereby SYN promotes neurodegeneration remains unclear. Familial PD(More)
BACKGROUND Mechanisms whereby gene-environment interactions mediate chronic, progressive neurodegenerative processes in Parkinson's disease (PD)-the second most common neurodegenerative disease-remain elusive. OBJECTIVE We created a two-hit [neuroinflammation and mutant α-synuclein (α-syn) overexpression] animal model to investigate mechanisms through(More)