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We report the first genome-wide association study of a joint analysis using 795 Han Chinese individuals with treatment-refractory schizophrenia (TRS) and 806 controls. Three loci showed suggestive significant association with TRS were identified. These loci include: rs10218843 (P = 3.04 × 10(-7)) and rs11265461 (P = 1.94 × 10(-7)) are adjacent to signaling(More)
Conditioned stimuli (CSs) previously associated with heroin are critically involved in activating long-lasting relapse and compulsive drug seeking. This study examined the magnitude of heroin seeking induced by drug-related cues in relation to the total amount of drug exposure during training. Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6/group) were trained(More)
Environmental stimuli and conditioned cues associated with heroin can induce drug-seeking behavior, but how heroin lapse interacts with cues is unclear. Rats were trained to nose-poke for i.v. heroin for 14 days and then tested for heroin seeking after withdrawal from heroin self-administration. Heroin seeking induced by cues persisted over several weeks(More)
The role of heroin-related stimuli in motivating the resumption of heroin use is not fully understood. The objective was to characterize the relative importance of drug-related contextual stimuli, discriminative stimuli (DS), or discrete conditioned stimuli (CSs) on drug seeking when rats were reintroduced into the operant context after withdrawal.(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OPRM1 gene have been associated with vulnerability to opioid dependence. The current study identifies an association of an intronic SNP (rs9479757) with the severity of heroin addiction among Han-Chinese male heroin addicts. Individual SNP analysis and haplotype-based analysis with additional SNPs in the OPRM1(More)
A high incidence of relapse can be triggered by exposure to conditioned cues previously associated with heroin. Extended access to drug and withdrawal are thought to affect the motivation for drug seeking. The present study evaluated how different periods of training to self-administer heroin and different periods of withdrawal affected drug seeking.(More)
Experimental efforts for understanding the mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) for opiate addiction are partially hampered by restraint stress. In unrestrained animals, it is difficult to perform EA stimulation at acupuncture points frequently selected on the four limbs. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of EA at the acupuncture point(More)
Conditioned environmental stimuli are known to be important determinants of drug seeking behavior. c-Fos, the protein product of the protooncogene c-Fos, is expressed in neurons when there are drug-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behaviour. Therefore, its expression could serve as a marker of regional neuronal activation. Using an(More)
The antisense approach and RT-PCR were used to study the effects of muscarinic receptors on the scores of morphine-withdrawal syndrome and the expression of NMDA receptor subtypes (NR(1A) and NR(2A)) mRNA in rat spinal cord and brainstem. The concentrations of glutamate in periaqueductal grey (PAG) of morphine-withdrawal rats were determined by capillary(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with risperidone on heroin self-administration and heroin-seeking behaviour induced by cues and heroin priming. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a fixed ratio 1 schedule for 2 wk and nose-poke responding was extinguished for 10 d, after which reinstatement of drug(More)