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Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) in humans and experimental animals are often associated with varying degrees of spontaneous functional recovery during the first months after injury. Such recovery is widely attributed to axons spared from injury that descend from the brain and bypass incomplete lesions, but its mechanisms are uncertain. To investigate the neural(More)
After complete spinal cord transections that removed all supraspinal inputs in adult rats, combinations of serotonergic agonists and epidural electrical stimulation were able to acutely transform spinal networks from nonfunctional to highly functional and adaptive states as early as 1 week after injury. Using kinematics, physiological and anatomical(More)
There is accumulating evidence that microRNAs are involved in multiple processes in development and tumor progression. Abnormally expressed miR-125b was found to play a fundamental role in several types of cancer; however, whether miR-125b participates in regulating the initiation and progress of osteosarcoma still remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that(More)
The locomotor ability of the spinal cord of adult rats deprived of brain control was tested by epidural spinal cord stimulation. The studies were performed on six rats that had a complete spinal cord transection (T7-T9) and epidural electrode implantations 2-3 weeks before testing was initiated. The stimulating epidural electrodes were implanted at the(More)
Motor responses in hindlimb muscles to epidural spinal cord stimulation in normal awake rats during bipedal standing were studied. Stimulation at L2 or S1 induced simultaneous and bilateral responses in the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. Stimulation at S1 evoked an early (ER), middle (MR) and late (LR)(More)
Previous studies have shown that both hepatitis A virus and hepatitis C virus inhibit innate immunity by cleaving the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein, an essential component of the virus-activated signaling pathway that activates NF-kappaB and IFN regulatory factor-3 to induce the production of type I IFN. For human hepatitis B virus (HBV),(More)
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has become a prominent therapeutic option for long-term treatment of morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Cross talk and pathogenetic consequences of RYGB-induced profound effects on metabolism and gut microbiome are poorly understood. The aim of the present study therefore was to characterize intra-individual(More)
Six adult monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received a unilateral lesion of the lateral corticospinal tract (CST) in the thoracic spinal cord. Prior to surgery, the animals were trained to perform quadrupedal stepping on a treadmill, and item retrieval with the foot. Whole body kinematics and electromyogram (EMG) recordings were made prior to, and at regular(More)
We hypothesized that the activation patterns of flexor and extensor muscles and the resulting kinematics of the forelimbs and hindlimbs during locomotion in the Rhesus would have unique characteristics relative to other quadrupedal mammals. Adaptations of limb movements and in motor pool recruitment patterns in accommodating a range of treadmill speeds(More)
We examined the expression of several molecular markers of protein balance in response to skeletal muscle atrophy induced by spinal cord isolation (SI; i.e., a complete transection of the spinal cord at both a midthoracic and a high sacral level plus complete deafferentation between the two transection sites). This treatment nearly eliminates neuromuscular(More)