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We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between(More)
With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
In vivo bioluminescence imaging depends on light emitted by luciferases in the body overcoming the effect of tissue attenuation. Understanding this relationship is essential for detection and quantification of signal. We have studied four codon optimized luciferases with different emission spectra, including enzymes from firefly (FLuc), click beetle(More)
PURPOSE We noted an unexpected inheritance pattern of lesions in several strains of gene-manipulated mice with ocular phenotypes. The lesions, which appeared at various stages of backcross to C57BL/6, bore resemblance to the rd8 retinal degeneration phenotype. We set out to examine the prevalence of this mutation in induced mutant mouse lines, vendor(More)
The central theme of supply chain management is integration. General system theory provides the theoretical framework of integration, whereas information integration is the foundation of broader supply chain integration. E-business opens up communication and enlarges networking opportunities and thus tremendously affects information integration. By(More)
Ammonia oxidation plays a pivotal role in the cycling and removal of nitrogen in aquatic sediments. Certain bacterial groups and a novel group of archaea, which is affiliated with the novel phylum Thaumarchaeota, can perform this initial nitrification step. We examined the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing β-Proteobacteria (β-AOB) and(More)
Diversity, abundance, and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase α subunit (amoA) in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. Generally, AOB had a lower diversity of amoA genes than did AOA in this study. Clone library analysis revealed great spatial(More)
Lycium barbarum L. (Solanaceae) is a Chinese medicinal plant whose fruits (Fructus Lycii) are used by Chinese physicians for treatment of infertility. However, the active ingredients and the mechanism of action underlying Lycium's fertility-facilitating effects remain unknown. Here we report that Fructus Lycii polysaccharides (FLPS) inhibit time- and(More)
Dengue virus (DV) contains a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome, and the 3' non-coding regions (NCRs) have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in viral RNA replication and translation initiation. In this study, we report the presence of a species of small sub-genomic RNA (sgRNA) derived from the 3' NCR in DV-infected cell cultures and animal(More)
We report here the characterization of a large Chinese family with maternally transmitted aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic deafness. In the absence of aminoglycosides, some matrilineal relatives in this family exhibited late-onset/progressive deafness, with a wide range of severity and age at onset. Notably, the average age at onset of deafness has(More)