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We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between(More)
With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
Ammonia oxidation plays a pivotal role in the cycling and removal of nitrogen in aquatic sediments. Certain bacterial groups and a novel group of archaea, which is affiliated with the novel phylum Thaumarchaeota, can perform this initial nitrification step. We examined the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing β-Proteobacteria (β-AOB) and(More)
Diversity, abundance, and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase α subunit (amoA) in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. Generally, AOB had a lower diversity of amoA genes than did AOA in this study. Clone library analysis revealed great spatial(More)
Lycium barbarum L. (Solanaceae) is a Chinese medicinal plant whose fruits (Fructus Lycii) are used by Chinese physicians for treatment of infertility. However, the active ingredients and the mechanism of action underlying Lycium's fertility-facilitating effects remain unknown. Here we report that Fructus Lycii polysaccharides (FLPS) inhibit time- and(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases. As Salmonella can form biofilms in which it is better protected against antimicrobial agents on a wide diversity of surfaces, it is of interest to explore ways to inhibit biofilm formation. Brominated furanones, originally extracted from the marine alga Delisea(More)
Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationships between bacteria and human health, little is known about the species and function of the microbial community associated with oral diseases. In this study, we report the sequencing of 16 metagenomic samples collected from dental swabs and plaques representing four periodontal states. Insights into(More)
AIM Growing evidence suggest that the microRNA (miR)-23a/24-2/27a cluster may play a crucial role in mammary tumorigenesis and act as a novel class of oncogenes. Among these members, miR-27a has been reported to promote proliferation, migration and invasion in human osteosarcoma cells. The aim of this study was to detect the serum levels of miR-27a in(More)
The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of hidden blood loss and assess the effects of using a tourniquet on postoperative hidden loss in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty. Eighty patients were randomised into two groups: one group underwent operation with a tourniquet and one without. Operating time, perioperative(More)
Keywords: Mobile cloud computing Green computing Dynamic program Energy-aware Cloudlets a b s t r a c t Employing mobile cloud computing (MCC) to enable mobile users to acquire benefits of cloud computing by an environmental friendly method is an efficient strategy for meeting current industrial demands. However, the restrictions of wireless bandwidth and(More)