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Macrophages, which are abundant in the tumour microenvironment, enhance malignancy. At metastatic sites, a distinct population of metastasis-associated macrophages promotes the extravasation, seeding and persistent growth of tumour cells. Here we define the origin of these macrophages by showing that Gr1-positive inflammatory monocytes are preferentially(More)
The latency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in resting primary CD4+ T cells is the major barrier for the eradication of the virus in patients on suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Even with optimal HAART treatment, replication-competent HIV-1 still exists in resting primary CD4+ T cells. Multiple restriction factors(More)
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been demonstrated to efficiently induce targeted gene editing in a variety of organisms including plants. Recent work showed that CRISPR/Cas9-induced gene mutations in Arabidopsis were mostly somatic mutations in the early generation, although some mutations could be stably inherited in later generations. However, it remains(More)
Salt cress (Thellungiella halophila) is a small winter annual crucifer with a short life cycle. It has a small genome (about 2 x Arabidopsis) with high sequence identity (average 92%) with Arabidopsis, and can be genetically transformed by the simple floral dip procedure. It is capable of copious seed production. Salt cress is an extremophile native to(More)
PURPOSE The trial objectives were to identify the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of first-line gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and to provide efficacy and safety data. Additional objectives were to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) scan response, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), and CA19-9(More)
There have been tremendous efforts and many technical innovations in supporting real-time video streaming in the past two decades, but cost-effective large-scale video broadcast has remained an elusive goal. IP multicast represented the earlier attempt to tackle this problem, but failed largely due to concerns regarding scalability, deployment, and support(More)
PURPOSE This phase III trial compared the efficacy and safety of albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) plus carboplatin with solvent-based paclitaxel (sb-paclitaxel) plus carboplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS In all, 1,052 untreated patients with stage IIIB to IV NSCLC were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive(More)
We describe an algorithm for the automated statistical analysis of protein abundance ratios (ASAPRatio) of proteins contained in two samples. Proteins are labeled with distinct stable-isotope tags and fragmented, and the tagged peptide fragments are separated by liquid chromatography (LC) and analyzed by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass(More)
Quantitative proteome profiling using stable isotope protein tagging and automated tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is an emerging technology with great potential for the functional analysis of biological systems and for the detection of clinical diagnostic or prognostic marker proteins. Owing to the enormous complexity of proteomes, their comprehensive(More)