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This paper investigates the problem of boot-strapping a statistical dialogue manager without access to training data and proposes a new probabilistic agenda-based method for simulating user behaviour. In experiments with a statistical POMDP dialogue system, the simu-lator was realistic enough to successfully test the prototype system and train a dialogue(More)
The role of Fos-like transcription factors in neuronal and behavioral plasticity has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that a Fos family member protein plays physiological roles in the neuronal, electrophysiological, and behavioral plasticity associated with repeated seizures. Repeated electroconvulsive seizures (ECS) induced isoforms of DeltaFosB in(More)
Voice morphing is a technique for modifying a source speaker's speech to sound as if it was spoken by some designated target speaker. Most of the recent approaches to voice morphing apply a linear transformation to the spectral envelope and pitch scaling to modify the prosody. Whilst these methods are effective, they also introduce artifacts arising from(More)
Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels regulate synaptic transmission by contributing to the repolarization phase of the action potential that invades the presynaptic terminal. BK channels are prone to activation under pathological conditions, such as brain ischemia and epilepsy. It is unclear if activation of these channels contributes to(More)
Chronic exposure to cocaine leads to prominent, long-lasting changes in behavior that characterize a state of addiction. The striatum, including the nucleus accumbens and caudoputamen, is an important substrate for these actions. We previously have shown that long-lasting Fos-related proteins of 35-37 kDa are induced in the striatum by chronic cocaine(More)
Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) provide a principled mathematical framework for modelling the uncertainty inherent in spoken dialog systems. However, conventional POMDPs scale poorly with the size of state and observation space. This paper describes a variation of the classic POMDP called the hidden information state (HIS) model in(More)
Voice morphing is a technique for modifying a source speaker's speech to sound as if it was spoken by some designated target speaker. The core process in a voice morphing system is the transformation of the spectral envelope of the source speaker to match that of the target speaker and linear transformations estimated from time-aligned parallel training(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes neuronal death, demyelination of surviving axons, and altered ion channel functioning, resulting in impaired axonal conduction. The large-conductance, voltage and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK or Maxi K(+)) channels contribute to the repolarization phase of action potentials. Therefore, they may play a significant role in(More)
BACKGROUND The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC) is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than(More)
Voice conversion is a technique for modifying a source speaker's speech to sound as if it was spoken by a target speaker. A popular approach to voice conversion is to apply a linear transformation to the spectral envelope. However, conventional parameter estimation based on least square error optimization does not necessarily lead to the best perceptual(More)