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This paper investigates the problem of boot-strapping a statistical dialogue manager without access to training data and proposes a new probabilistic agenda-based method for simulating user behaviour. In experiments with a statistical POMDP dialogue system, the simu-lator was realistic enough to successfully test the prototype system and train a dialogue(More)
MicroRNA deregulation is involved in tumor initiation and progression. The aim of this study was to identify and validate the microRNA candidates that contribute to the metastasis of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). Using microarrays, a panel of differentially expressed microRNAs was identified in paired OTSCC cell lines with different(More)
Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) provide a principled mathematical framework for modelling the uncertainty inherent in spoken dialog systems. However, conventional POMDPs scale poorly with the size of state and observation space. This paper describes a variation of the classic POMDP called the hidden information state (HIS) model in(More)
Voice morphing is a technique for modifying a source speaker's speech to sound as if it was spoken by some designated target speaker. Most of the recent approaches to voice morphing apply a linear transformation to the spectral envelope and pitch scaling to modify the prosody. Whilst these methods are effective, they also introduce artifacts arising from(More)
Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels regulate synaptic transmission by contributing to the repolarization phase of the action potential that invades the presynaptic terminal. BK channels are prone to activation under pathological conditions, such as brain ischemia and epilepsy. It is unclear if activation of these channels contributes to(More)
How the brain transitions into a seizure is poorly understood. Recurrent seizure-like events (SLEs) in low-Mg2+/ high-K+ perfusate were measured in the CA3 region of the intact mouse hippocampus. The SLE was divided into a "preictal phase," which abruptly turns into a higher frequency "ictal" phase. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors shortened the preictal(More)
BACKGROUND The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC) is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify the risk factors for the presence of microvascular invasion (MVI) in patients with solitary small hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS The data of 215 patients who underwent liver resection between 2008 and 2011 at our hospital were reviewed. MVI was confirmed on pathological examination in 41 patients.(More)
Voice morphing is a technique for modifying a source speaker's speech to sound as if it was spoken by some designated target speaker. The core process in a voice morphing system is the transformation of the spectral envelope of the source speaker to match that of the target speaker and linear transformations estimated from time-aligned parallel training(More)
BACKGROUND Appendectomy, the surgical removal of the appendix, is performed primarily for acute appendicitis. Patients who undergo appendectomy for complicated appendicitis, defined as gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, are more likely to suffer from postoperative complications. The routine use of abdominal drainage to reduce postoperative complications(More)