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This paper investigates the problem of bootstrapping a statistical dialogue manager without access to training data and proposes a new probabilistic agenda-based method for simulating user behaviour. In experiments with a statistical POMDP dialogue system, the simulator was realistic enough to successfully test the prototype system and train a dialogue(More)
Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) provide a principled mathematical framework for modelling the uncertainty inherent in spoken dialog systems. However, conventional POMDPs scale poorly with the size of state and observation space. This paper describes a variation of the classic POMDP called the hidden information state (HIS) model in(More)
The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC) is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than other forms of(More)
MicroRNA deregulation is involved in tumor initiation and progression. The aim of this study was to identify and validate the microRNA candidates that contribute to the metastasis of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). Using microarrays, a panel of differentially expressed microRNAs was identified in paired OTSCC cell lines with different(More)
Voice morphing is a technique for modifying a source speaker's speech to sound as if it was spoken by some designated target speaker. Most of the recent approaches to voice morphing apply a linear transformation to the spectral envelope and pitch scaling to modify the prosody. Whilst these methods are effective, they also introduce artifacts arising from(More)
Voice morphing is a technique for modifying a source speaker's speech to sound as if it was spoken by some designated target speaker. The core process in a voice morphing system is the transformation of the spectral envelope of the source speaker to match that of the target speaker and linear transformations estimated from time-aligned parallel training(More)
OBJECTIVES This study assessed correlates of leisure-time physical activity among the elderly in Singapore. METHODS A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 1998 with 2494 subjects 60 years and older. RESULTS Regular leisure-time physical activity was practiced by 47.0% of men and 38.5% of women. It was significantly correlated with family(More)
Historical drainage patterns adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau differed markedly from those of today. We examined the relationship between drainage history and geographic patterns of genetic variation in the Yunnan spiny frog, Nanorana yunnanensis, using approximately 981 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA partial sequences from protein-coding genes ND1(More)
OBJECTIVE We surveyed elderly individuals in an Asian community to determine the prevalence of constipation and its association with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. This information will be used to plan a health promotion program for the elderly. METHODS A random sample of 2807 residents aged > or = 60 yr in Singapore were interviewed in their(More)