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The diversity and evolution of bitter taste perception in mammals is not well understood. Recent discoveries of bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes provide an opportunity for a genetic approach to this question. We here report the identification of 10 and 30 putative T2R genes from the draft human and mouse genome sequences, respectively, in addition to the(More)
Pheromones are chemicals produced and detected by conspecifics to elicit social/sexual physiological and behavioral responses, and they are perceived primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in terrestrial vertebrates. Two large superfamilies of G protein-coupled receptors, V1rs and V2rs, have been identified as pheromone receptors in vomeronasal sensory(More)
alpha-Synuclein (alpha-Syn) abnormality and mitochondrial deficiency are two major changes in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A link between alpha-Syn and mitochondria in PD has been demonstrated by a recent study showing that accumulation of alpha-Syn in the mitochondria from the PD-vulnerable brain regions was associated with(More)
Alpha-synuclein (alpha-Syn) is a brain-enriched protein of 140 amino acids. Despite of strong evidence showing the implication of the protein in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, its physiological function remains poorly understood. To study the physiological function of alpha-Syn, a depiction of its precise subcellular localization is(More)
Hyperphosphorylated α-synuclein is considered an important event in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease but its function remains elusive. In this study we provide evidence that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression was unaffected by overexpression of wild-type and phospho-mimic mutant α-synuclein (S129D) in dopaminergic MN9D cells. However, α-synuclein(More)
Many small RNAs have been cloned from animal gonads, for example, endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) were found in oocytes and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) were found in testis. Gallus gallus (chicken) is an important model organism, but few small RNAs have been identified from its gonads. In this study, we isolated and cloned 156 small RNAs(More)
The present study was designed to assess the potential of marrow stromal cells (MSCs) to deliver therapeutic genes to the brain and result in biologically significant functional recovery. The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene was transfected to MSCs with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector. MSCs expressing TH gene were transplanted into the striatum of(More)
alpha-Synuclein has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have shown that alpha-synuclein is involved in the regulation of dopamine (DA) metabolism, possibly by down-regulating the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in DA biosynthesis. In this study, we constructed alpha-synuclein(More)
Beta-amyloid (Aβ)-mediated inflammation plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD). Anti-inflammatory treatment may provide therapeutic benefits. In this study, the effect of hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA) on Aβ1-42-induced inflammation in AD mice was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored. Aβ1-42(More)
Current treatments for ischemic stroke are limited, stem cell transplantation offers great potential as a therapeutic strategy. The present study was undertaken to determine whether human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) could improve brain injury after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) through modulating peripheral(More)