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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which can precipitate tissue injury and lethal shock (endotoxemia). Antagonists of TNF and IL-1 have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials, possibly because these cytokines are early mediators in(More)
Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses(More)
The shift in plants from vegetative growth to floral development is regulated by red-far-red light receptors (phytochromes) and blue-ultraviolet A light receptors (cryptochromes). A mutation in the Arabidopsis thaliana CRY2 gene encoding a blue-light receptor apoprotein (CRY2) is allelic to the late-flowering mutant, fha. Flowering in cry2/fha mutant plants(More)
Impairment of folate and cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) metabolism has been observed in families with neural tube defects (NTDs). Genetic variants of enzymes in the homocysteine remethylation pathway might act as predisposing factors contributing to NTD risk. The first polymorphism linked to increased NTD risk was the 677C-->T mutation in(More)
The 14-3-3 proteins interact with diverse cellular molecules involved in various signal transduction pathways controlling cell proliferation, transformation, and apoptosis. To aid our investigation of the biological function of 14-3-3 proteins, we have set out to identify high-affinity antagonists. By screening phage display libraries, we have identified a(More)
Cryptochrome is a group of flavin-type blue light receptors that regulate plant growth and development. The function of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 in the early photomorphogenesis of seedlings was studied by using transgenic plants overexpressing CRY2 protein, and cry2 mutant plants accumulating no CRY2 protein. It is found that cryptochrome 2 mediates blue(More)
OBJECTIVES Severe sepsis and septic shock is a consequence of a generalized inflammatory systemic response because of an invasive infection that may result in acute organ dysfunction. Mortality is high despite access to modern intensive care units. The nuclear DNA binding protein high mobility group 1 (HMGB1) protein has recently been suggested to act as a(More)
The Arabidopsis photoreceptors cry1, cry2 and phyB are known to play roles in the regulation of flowering time, for which the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously hypothesized that phyB mediates a red-light inhibition of floral initiation and cry2 mediates a blue-light inhibition of the phyB function. Studies of the cry2/phyB double(More)
CONTEXT Despite the substantial amount of health-related information available on the Internet, little is known about the accessibility, quality, and reading grade level of that health information. OBJECTIVE To evaluate health information on breast cancer, depression, obesity, and childhood asthma available through English- and Spanish-language search(More)