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In the absence of disease, the vasculature of the mammalian eye is quiescent, in part because of the action of angiogenic inhibitors that prevent vessels from invading the cornea and vitreous. Here, an inhibitor responsible for the avascularity of these ocular compartments is identified as pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a protein previously shown(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of senile plaques (SPs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in vulnerable brain regions. SPs are composed of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta) 40/42(43) peptides. Evidence implicates a central role for Abeta in the pathophysiology of AD. Mutations in betaAPP and presenilin 1 (PS1) lead to elevated(More)
Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS)/DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a human disorder characterized by a number of phenotypic features including cardiovascular defects. Most VCFS/DGS patients are hemizygous for a 1.5-3.0 Mb region of 22q11. To investigate the etiology of this disorder, we used a cre-loxP strategy to generate mice that are hemizygous for a 1.5 Mb(More)
Cortical plasticity is thought to be important for the establishment, consolidation, and retrieval of permanent memory. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular mechanism of learning and memory, requires the activation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In particular, it has been suggested that NR2A-containing NMDA receptors are(More)
CO2 chemoreception may be mediated by the modulation of certain ion channels in neurons. Kir4.1 and Kir5.1, two members of the inward rectifier K+ channel family, are expressed in several brain regions including the brainstem. To test the hypothesis that Kir4.1 and Kir5. 1 are modulated by CO2 and pH, we carried out experiments by expressing Kir4.1 and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the relative importance of family history as a predictor of early menopause. DESIGN Case-control study. From a population-based survey of 10,606 women between 45 and 54 years of age, we selected 344 cases with early menopause (average age 42.2 years) and 344 age-matched controls who were still menstruating or who had a menopause(More)
A novel in vivo experimental strategy, involving cell type-specific expression of a dominant-negative K+ channel pore-forming alpha subunit, was developed and exploited to probe the molecular identity of the cardiac transient outward K+ current (I(to)). A point mutation (W to F) was introduced at position 362 in the pore region of Kv4.2 to produce a(More)
The classic murine muscular dystrophy strain, dy, was first described almost 40 years ago. We have identified the molecular basis of an allele of dy, called dy2J, by detecting a mutation in the laminin alpha 2 chain gene--the first identified mutation in laminin-2. The G to A mutation in a splice site consensus sequence causes abnormal splicing and(More)
Polar amino acids lying within three hydrophobic regions of the dopamine transporter (DAT) are analogous to those important for ligand recognition by catecholamine receptors. Possible functional significance of these amino acids was examined by expressing DAT cDNAs mutated in these polar residues. Replacement of aspartate at position 79 with alanine,(More)