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Cortical plasticity is thought to be important for the establishment, consolidation, and retrieval of permanent memory. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular mechanism of learning and memory, requires the activation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In particular, it has been suggested that NR2A-containing NMDA receptors are(More)
Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS)/DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a human disorder characterized by a number of phenotypic features including cardiovascular defects. Most VCFS/DGS patients are hemizygous for a 1.5-3.0 Mb region of 22q11. To investigate the etiology of this disorder, we used a cre-loxP strategy to generate mice that are hemizygous for a 1.5 Mb(More)
The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that controls translational efficiency and regulates synaptic plasticity. Here, we report that FMRP is involved in dopamine (DA) modulation of synaptic potentiation. AMPA glutamate receptor subtype 1 (GluR1) surface expression and phosphorylation in response to D1 receptor stimulation(More)
Pathogens and cellular danger signals activate sensors such as RIG-I and NLRP3 to produce robust immune and inflammatory responses through respective adaptor proteins MAVS and ASC, which harbor essential N-terminal CARD and PYRIN domains, respectively. Here, we show that CARD and PYRIN function as bona fide prions in yeast and that their prion forms are(More)
Previous studies have suggested that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) functions as a positive regulator for memory formation and that age-related memory deficits are the result of dysfunctional signaling pathways mediated by cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), the downstream transcription factor of CaMKIV. Little is known,(More)
Tau hyperphosphorylation is a critical event in Alzheimer's disease, in which the neuronal Golgi fragmentation occurs earlier than tau hyperphosphorylation. However, the intrinsic link between Golgi impairment and tau pathology is missing. By electron microscopy and western blotting, we observed in the present study that the neuronal Golgi fragmentation was(More)
The L-type Ca(2+) channel Ca(v)1.2 forms macromolecular signaling complexes that comprise the β(2) adrenergic receptor, trimeric G(s) protein, adenylyl cyclase, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) for efficient signaling in heart and brain. The protein phosphatases PP2A and PP2B are part of this complex. PP2A counteracts increase in Ca(v)1.2 channel(More)
Unraveling the mechanisms by which the molecular manipulation of genes of interest enhances cognitive function is important to establish genetic therapies for cognitive disorders. Although CREB is thought to positively regulate formation of long-term memory (LTM), gain-of-function effects of CREB remain poorly understood, especially at the behavioral level.(More)
We present a semi-automatic and efficient method for producing full polygonal models of range scanned trees, which are initially represented as sparse point clouds. First, a skeleton of the trunk and main branches of the tree is produced based on the scanned point clouds. Due to the unavoidable incompleteness of the point clouds produced by range scans of(More)