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Local catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan is considered an important mechanism in regulating immunological and neurological responses. The kynurenine pathway is the main route for the non-protein metabolism of tryptophan. The intermediates of the kynurenine pathway are present at micromolar concentrations in blood and are regulated by(More)
Free fatty acids (FFAs) play important physiological roles in many tissues as an energy source and as signaling molecules in various cellular processes. Elevated levels of circulating FFAs are associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Here we show that GPR84, a previously orphan G protein-coupled receptor, functions as a receptor for medium-chain(More)
We previously described two mammalian secreted proteins, prokineticin 1 and prokineticin 2, that potently contract gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Prokineticin 1 has also been shown to promote angiogenesis by stimulating proliferation, migration, and fenestration of endocrine organ-derived endothelial cells. Here we report the cloning and characterization(More)
The citric acid cycle is central to the regulation of energy homeostasis and cell metabolism. Mutations in enzymes that catalyse steps in the citric acid cycle result in human diseases with various clinical presentations. The intermediates of the citric acid cycle are present at micromolar concentration in blood and are regulated by respiration, metabolism(More)
Many members of the TGF-beta superfamily are indicated to play important roles in ovarian follicular development, such as affecting granulosa cell function and oocyte maturation. Abnormalities associated with TGF-beta1 signaling transduction could result in female infertility. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as small noncoding RNAs, were recently found to regulate gene(More)
Complement-derived anaphylatoxins regulate immune and inflammatory responses through G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signalling. C5L2 (also known as GPR77) is a relatively new GPCR thought to be a non-signalling receptor binding to C5a, on the basis of sequence information and experimental evidence. Here we show, using gene targeting, that C5L2(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The present studies examined the hypothesis that the distribution of cerebral injury after a focal ischemic insult is associated with the regional distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. METHODS Based on previous studies that certain anatomically well-defined areas are prone to become either core or penumbra after(More)
Previous studies have indicated that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is enclosed with a lipid envelope similar in composition to cell plasma membranes and to other viruses. Further, the fluidity, as measured by spin resonance spectroscopy, is low and the viral envelope is among the most highly ordered membranes analyzed. However, the relationship between(More)