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Repeated cocaine treatment and withdrawal produces changes in brain function thought to be involved in relapse to drug use. Withdrawal from repeated cocaine reduced in vivo extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens of rats by decreasing the exchange of extracellular cystine for intracellular glutamate. In vivo restoration of cystine/glutamate(More)
Basal extracellular glutamate sampled in vivo is present in micromolar concentrations in the extracellular space outside the synaptic cleft, and neither the origin nor the function of this glutamate is known. This report reveals that blockade of glutamate release from the cystine-glutamate antiporter produced a significant decrease (60%) in extrasynaptic(More)
We describe a computational method that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. The method, named ABSOLUTE, can detect subclonal heterogeneity and somatic homozygosity, and it can calculate statistical sensitivity for detection of specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze exome sequencing data(More)
Recent resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown significant group differences in several regions and networks between patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls. The objective of the present study was to investigate the whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity patterns of depressed(More)
Repeated cocaine causes enduring changes in dopamine and glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens, and dopamine and glutamate terminals synapse on GABAergic accumbens neurons. The present study demonstrates that there are changes in GABA transmission in the accumbens at 3 weeks after discontinuing daily cocaine injections. No-net flux microdialysis(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested that the default mode network (DMN) plays a central role in the physiopathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the effect of antidepressant treatment on functional connectivity within the DMN has yet to be established. Considering the very high rates of relapse in recovered subjects, we hypothesized(More)
Puberty is characterized by mood swings and anxiety, which are often produced by stress. Here we show that THP (allopregnanolone), a steroid that is released as a result of stress, increases anxiety in pubertal female mice, in contrast to its anxiety-reducing effect in adults. Anxiety is regulated by GABAergic inhibition in limbic circuits. Although this(More)
Neurosteroids, such as the progesterone metabolite 3alpha-OH-5alpha[beta]-pregnan-20-one (THP or [allo]pregnanolone), function as potent positive modulators of the GABA(A) receptor (GABAR) when acutely administered. However, fluctuations in the circulating levels of this steroid at puberty, across endogenous ovarian cycles, during pregnancy or following(More)
Determining how somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) promote cancer is an important goal. We characterized SCNA patterns in 4,934 cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer data set. Whole-genome doubling, observed in 37% of cancers, was associated with higher rates of every other type of SCNA, TP53 mutations, CCNE1 amplifications and alterations of(More)
Population neuronal rhythms of various frequencies are observed in the rodent hippocampus during distinct behavioural states. However, the question of whether the hippocampus exhibits properties of spontaneous rhythms and population synchrony in isolation has not been definitively answered. To address this, we developed a novel preparation for studying(More)