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Glycosylation is a ubiquitous reaction controlling the bioactivity and storage of plant natural products. Glycosylation of small molecules is catalyzed by a superfamily of glycosyltransferases (GTs) in most plant species studied to date. We present crystal structures of the UDP flavonoid/triterpene GT UGT71G1 from Medicago truncatula bound to UDP or(More)
Abnormal accumulation of soluble amyloid beta (Aβ) is believed to cause malfunction of neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hippocampus is one of the earliest affected brain regions in AD. However, little effort has been made to investigate the effects of soluble Aβ1-42 oligomers on discharge properties of hippocampal neurons in vivo. This study was(More)
There is little known about the regulation of gene expression during TCR-mediated differentiation of immature CD4+8+ (double positive) thymocytes into mature T cells. Using the DPK CD4+8+ thymocyte precursor cell line, we demonstrate that the early growth response-1 gene (Erg-1), encoding a zinc finger transcription factor, is rapidly upregulated after TCR(More)
Polyacrylate glue protein analogs of the glue secreted by Phragmatopoma californica, a marine polycheate, were synthesized with phosphate, primary amine, and catechol sidechains with molar ratios similar to the natural glue proteins. Aqueous mixtures of the mimetic polyelectrolytes condensed into liquid complex coacervates around neutral pH. Wet cortical(More)
PURPOSE To determine the involvement of retinal astrocytes (RACs) in T cell-mediated experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). METHODS Frozen sections of eyes from naive mice or mice with EAU were stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and were examined by confocal microscopy. RACs were(More)
The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), the main functional adenosine receptor on murine T cells, plays a unique role in the attenuation of inflammation and tissue damage in vivo. Here, we showed that, of the immune cell types tested, activated γδ T cells expressed the highest levels of A2AR mRNA and that A2AR ligation inhibited αβ T cell activation, but(More)
On entering the tissues, infiltrating autoreactive T cells must be reactivated locally to gain pathogenic activity. We have previously reported that, when activated by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4 ligands, retinal astrocytes (RACs) are able to function as antigen-presenting cells to re-activate uveitogenic T cells and allow responder T cells to(More)
When amino acid residues are represented by parameters describing their side chain lengths and polarities, a sequence function defined as the sum of the first two sequence autocorrelation functions is found to be negatively and linearly correlated with the logarithms of folding rates of beta-proteins. The new function reveals new features in beta-protein(More)
γδ T cells can either enhance or inhibit an adaptive immune response, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Given that CD73 is the main enzyme responsible for conversion of AMP into the immunosuppressive molecule adenosine, we investigated its role in the regulatory function of γδ T cells in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). We found(More)
We have recently reported that, although adenosine receptor (AR) agonists have a suppressive effect on Th1 autoreactive T cells, their effect on Th17 autoreactive T cells and γδ T cells is stimulatory and this effect is mainly mediated via A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs). In this study, we further demonstrate that treatment of C57BL/6 (B6) mice with a(More)