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Glycosylation is a ubiquitous reaction controlling the bioactivity and storage of plant natural products. Glycosylation of small molecules is catalyzed by a superfamily of glycosyltransferases (GTs) in most plant species studied to date. We present crystal structures of the UDP flavonoid/triterpene GT UGT71G1 from Medicago truncatula bound to UDP or(More)
We have previously demonstrated that the 21-residue peptide pMOG(35-55) from myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) contains an antigenic epitope that activates CD8(+) encephalitogenic T cells in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. To identify the core encephalitogenic epitope of CD8(+) MOG-specific T cells, we have prepared a panel of highly purified peptides of varying(More)
The evolution of lignin biosynthesis was critical in the transition of plants from an aquatic to an upright terrestrial lifestyle. Lignin is assembled by oxidative polymerization of two major monomers, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. Although two recently discovered laccases, LAC4 and LAC17, have been shown to play a role in lignin polymerization in(More)
After the initial mechanical insult of spinal cord injury (SCI), secondary mediators propagate a massive loss of oligodendrocytes. We previously showed that following SCI both the total phospholipase activity and cytosolic PLA(2)-IV alpha protein expression increased. However, the expression of secreted isoforms of PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) and their possible roles(More)
PURPOSE The aims of this study were to determine whether IL-17(+) T cells were present in CD4 and CD8 interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP)-specific T cells and to determine the role of antigen-specific and nonspecific IL-17(+) T cells in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). METHODS B6 mice were immunized with(More)
Polyacrylate glue protein analogs of the glue secreted by Phragmatopoma californica, a marine polycheate, were synthesized with phosphate, primary amine, and catechol sidechains with molar ratios similar to the natural glue proteins. Aqueous mixtures of the mimetic polyelectrolytes condensed into liquid complex coacervates around neutral pH. Wet cortical(More)
We have previously reported that IL-17(+) interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) 161-180-specific T cells have a strong pathogenic effect in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) induced in B10RIII mice; however, this pathogenic activity is not solely attributable to the major cytokine, IL-17, produced by these cells. To determine whether other(More)
PURPOSE To determine how the activation of γδ T cells affects the generation of uveitogenic αβ T cells and the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). METHODS γδ T cells were isolated from B6 mice immunized with the uveitogenic peptide IRBP(1-20) and αβ T cells from immunized TCR-δ(-/-) mice. Resting γδ T cells were prepared by culture of(More)
We previously reported that after exposure to inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-17 and IFN-γ, RPE cells express increased amounts of suppressor of cytokine signaling, leading to general suppression of the inflammatory response. Here, we demonstrate that RPE cells expressed increased levels of PD-L1 in response to IL-17, IFN-γ, or Poly I:C. These PD-L1(hi)(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit a potent immunomodulatory capacity and have been applied to treat diseases such as graft versus host disease and severe autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanism underlying their immunosuppressive effect is not yet completely understood. Here, we investigated the role of the CD73/adenosine pathway in immune modulation(More)