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Glutamatergic synaptic transmission is a dynamic process determined by the amount of glutamate released by presynaptic sites, the clearance of glutamate in the synaptic cleft, and the properties of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. Clearance of glutamate in the synaptic cleft depends on passive diffusion and active uptake by glutamate transporters. In this(More)
Bidirectional interactions between neurons and glial cells are crucial to the genesis of pathological pain. The mechanisms regulating these interactions and the role of this process in relaying synaptic input in the spinal dorsal horn remain to be established. We studied the role of glutamate transporters in the regulation of such interactions. On(More)
The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a mammalian host restriction factor that inhibits the replication of a variety of RNA viruses, including retroviruses, alphaviruses and filoviruses, through interaction with the ZAP-responsive elements (ZRE) in viral RNA, and recruiting the exosome to degrade RNA substrate. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a(More)
Chinese adults literate only in Chinese characters could not add or delete individual consonants in spoken Chinese words. A comparable group of adults, literate in alphabetic spelling as well as characters, could perform the same tasks readily and accurately. The two groups were similar in education and experience but differed in age and consequently in(More)
Glial cell dysfunction and excessive glutamate receptor activation in spinal dorsal horn neurons are hallmark mechanisms of pathological pain. The way in which glial cell dysfunction leads to excessive glutamate receptor activation in the spinal sensory synapses remains unknown. We and others recently reported the downregulation of glial glutamate(More)
Native cowhage spicules, and heat-inactivated spicules containing histamine or capsaicin, evoke similar sensations of itch and nociceptive sensations in humans. In ongoing studies of the peripheral neural mechanisms of chemical itch and pain in the mouse, extracellular electrophysiological recordings were obtained, in vivo, from the cell bodies of(More)
Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the spinal dorsal horn neurons is a key process related to sensory transmission, neural plasticity, and pathogenesis of pain. In this study, we investigated how activation of NMDA receptors in spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons is regulated by glutamate re-uptake through glutamate transporters located(More)
BACKGROUND Sevoflurane preconditioning has a neuroprotective effect, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate whether sevoflurane-induced cerebral preconditioning involves inhibition of carboxy-terminal modulator protein (CTMP), an endogenous inhibitor of Akt, in a rat model of focal cerebral(More)
Activation of glutamate receptors and glial cells in the spinal dorsal horn are two fundamental processes involved in the pathogenesis of various pain conditions, including neuropathic pain induced by injury to the peripheral or central nervous systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated that minocycline treatment attenuates allodynic and hyperalgesic(More)
Studies have suggested that binding of the SATB1 protein to L2a, a matrix association region located 4.5 kb 5' to the mouse CD8alpha gene, positively affects CD8 expression in T cells. Therefore, experiments were performed to determine the effect on T cell development of reduced expression of SATB1. Because homozygous SATB1-null mice do not survive to(More)