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Glutamatergic synaptic transmission is a dynamic process determined by the amount of glutamate released by presynaptic sites, the clearance of glutamate in the synaptic cleft, and the properties of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. Clearance of glutamate in the synaptic cleft depends on passive diffusion and active uptake by glutamate transporters. In this(More)
The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a mammalian host restriction factor that inhibits the replication of a variety of RNA viruses, including retroviruses, alphaviruses and filoviruses, through interaction with the ZAP-responsive elements (ZRE) in viral RNA, and recruiting the exosome to degrade RNA substrate. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a(More)
β-Asarone is an active component of the Acori graminei rhizome that is a traditional Chinese medicine clinically used in treating dementia in China. However, the cognitive effect of β-asarone and its mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we used asenescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, which mimic many of the salient features of Alzheimer׳s disease(More)
Multiple lines of evidence have implicated that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although there are reports suggesting a link between alpha7 nAChR subtype and AD, there has been little report on the mechanism. The present study investigates whether and how α7 nAChR(More)
Activation of glutamate receptors and glial cells in the spinal dorsal horn are two fundamental processes involved in the pathogenesis of various pain conditions, including neuropathic pain induced by injury to the peripheral or central nervous systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated that minocycline treatment attenuates allodynic and hyperalgesic(More)
Bis(7)-tacrine [bis(7)-tetrahydroaminacrine] acts as an AChE inhibitor and also exerts modulatory effects on many ligand-gated ion channels and voltage-gated Ca(2+) and K(+) channels. It has been reported previously that tacrine and some other AChE inhibitors suppressed I(K(A)) in central and peripheral neurons. The present study aimed to explore whether(More)
Malformed α-Synuclein (α-syn) aggregates in neurons are released into the extracellular space, activating microglia to induce chronic neuroinflammation that further enhances neuronal damage in α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease. The mechanisms by which α-syn aggregates activate and recruit microglia remain unclear, however. Here we show that(More)
Misfolded α-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregates participate in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson’s disease. Whereas much is known about how the various domains within full-length α-Syn (FL-α-Syn) contribute to the formation of α-Syn aggregates and therefore to their neurotoxicity, little is known about whether the individual peptides that(More)
In Part I titled Empirical Bayes Estimation, we discuss the estimation of a heteroscedastic multivariate normal mean in terms of the ensemble risk. We first derive the ensemble minimax properties of various estimators that shrink towards zero through the empirical Bayes method. We then generalize our results to the case where the variances are given as a(More)
—Based on the situation of the construction and software industry, this paper presents a multi-skilled human resource scheduling model which considers the skill and the salary of the workforce at different levels. It introduces a novel cuckoo search (CS)-based approach to optimize the objective function which combines the minimization of the makespan and(More)