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Tissue injury generates endogenous factors that heighten our sense of pain by increasing the response of sensory nerve endings to noxious stimuli. Bradykinin and nerve growth factor (NGF) are two such pro-algesic agents that activate G-protein-coupled (BK2) and tyrosine kinase (TrkA) receptors, respectively, to stimulate phospholipase C (PLC) signalling(More)
Given a single image of an arbitrary road, that may not be well-paved, or have clearly delineated edges, or some a priori known color or texture distribution, is it possible for a computer to find this road? This paper addresses this question by decomposing the road detection process into two steps: the estimation of the vanishing point associated with the(More)
Opioid drugs, such as morphine, and the endogenous opioid peptides, namely the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins, exert a wide spectrum of physiological and behavioral effects, including effects on pain perception, mood, motor control, and autonomic functions. These effects are mediated via membrane-bound receptors, of which the best characterized are(More)
Given a single image of an arbitrary road, that may not be well-paved, or have clearly delineated edges, or some a priori known color or texture distribution, is it possible for a computer to find this road? This paper addresses this question by decomposing the road detection process into two steps: the estimation of the vanishing point associated with the(More)
In the tasks of image representation, recognition and retrieval, a 2D image is usually transformed into a 1D long vector and modelled as a point in a high-dimensional vector space. This vector-space model brings up much convenience and many advantages. However, it also leads to some problems such as the Curse of Dimensionality dilemma and Small Sample Size(More)
Recently, a Two-Dimensional Principal Component Analysis (2DPCA) [1] was proposed and the authors have demonstrated its superiority over the conventional Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in face recognition. But the theoretical proof why 2DPCA is better than PCA has not been given until now. In this paper, The essence of 2DPCA is analyzed and a framework(More)
Appropriate development of nervous system connectivity involves a variety of processes, including neuronal life-and-death decisions, differentiation, axon guidance and migration, and synaptogenesis. Although these activities likely require specialized signaling events, few substrates unique to these neurotrophic functions have been identified. Here we(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) initiates its trophic effects by long-range signaling through binding, internalization, and transport of a ligand-receptor complex from the axon terminal to the cell body. However, the mechanism by which retrograde transport of NGF takes place has not been elucidated. Here we describe an interaction between the Trk receptor(More)
Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons first express kainate receptor subunits, predominantly GluR5, during embryonic development. In the DRG and throughout the nervous system, substantial editing of GluR5 mRNA occurs with developmental maturation (Bernard et al., 1999). The accompanying change in Ca(2+) permeability of functional kainate receptors that is the(More)
The cancer stem cell hypothesis may explain why conventional chemotherapies are unable to fully eradicate cancers. In this study, we examined both the prognostic and predictive significance of putative cancer stem cell markers in colorectal cancer. In this study, immunohistochemistry for three candidate cancer stem cell markers (CD133, Oct-4 and Sox-2) and(More)