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Streptococcus pneumoniae, a penicillin-sensitive bacterium, is recognized as a major cause of pneumonia and is treated clinically with penicillin-based antibiotics. The rapid increase in resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics affects 450 million people globally and results in 4 million deaths every year. To unveil the mechanism of resistance of S.(More)
A proper regulation of membrane fluidity is critical for cellular activities such as communication between cells, mitosis, and endocytosis. Unsaturated lipids, a main component of biological membranes, are particularly susceptible to oxidative attack of reactive oxygen species. The oxidation of lipids can produce structural derangement of membranes and(More)
This paper presents a method for improving the quality of degraded documents by noise removal and text enhancing. Histogram of a degraded document is analyzed to find out the approximate ranges of gray-value for text-, graph-, (i.e. photographs), and background-pixels. After the graph-pixels are identified, they are replaced by the background pixels.(More)
We report a novel 'fluorescent dopamine' that possesses essential features of natural dopamine. Our method is simple and is readily extended to monoamine neurotransmitters such as L-norepinephrine, serotonin and GABA, providing a more practical approach. Because of its compatibility with sensitive fluorescent measurements, we envisage that our approach will(More)
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