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BACKGROUND Animal behavior is governed by the activity of interconnected brain circuits. Comprehensive brain wiring maps are thus needed in order to formulate hypotheses about information flow and also to guide genetic manipulations aimed at understanding how genes and circuits orchestrate complex behaviors. RESULTS To assemble this map, we deconstructed(More)
Neural coding for olfactory sensory stimuli has been mapped near completion in the Drosophila first-order center, but little is known in the higher brain centers. Here, we report that the antenna lobe (AL) spatial map is transformed further in the calyx of the mushroom body (MB), an essential olfactory associated learning center, by stereotypic connections(More)
Memory is initially labile and gradually consolidated over time through new protein synthesis into a long-lasting stable form. Studies of odor-shock associative learning in Drosophila have established the mushroom body (MB) as a key brain structure involved in olfactory long-term memory (LTM) formation. Exactly how early neural activity encoded in thousands(More)
Different stimulus intensities elicit distinct perceptions, implying that input signals are either conveyed through an overlapping but distinct subpopulation of sensory neurons or channeled into divergent brain circuits according to intensity. In Drosophila, carbon dioxide (CO2) is detected by a single type of olfactory sensory neuron, but information is(More)
The intrinsic turbidity of scaffolds formed by natural biomaterials such as collagen fibers prevents high-resolution light microscopy in depth. In this research, we have developed a new method of using light microscopy for penetrative three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of scaffolds formed by collagen, chitosan, or cellulose. First, we applied an(More)
Cytokine immunotherapy using interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-15 may be beneficial for patients receiving umbilical cord blood (CB) transplantation by ameliorating post-transplant T-cell apoptosis. The present study compares the differential effect of IL-15 and IL-2 on survival of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated CB and adult peripheral blood (APB) T(More)
Infection with Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strains is associated with gastritis, ulcerations, and gastric cancer. CagA is translocated into infected epithelial cells by a type IV secretion system and can be tyrosine phosphorylated, inducing signal transduction and motogenic responses in epithelial cells. Cellular cholesterol, a vital component of the(More)
Gene expression patterns are revealed by GFP reporter. Brains are counterstained with DiD, a fluorescent membrane probe penetrates readily into thick tissue to label all neuropil structures. Because of near infrared emission, DiD is excellent for multicolor labeling together with GFP expression. We routinely image DiD-labeled brains using a 40x(More)
Recent advances in sensory neuroscience using Drosophila olfaction as a model system have revealed brain maps representing the external world. Once we understand how the brain's built-in capability generates the internal olfactory maps, we can then elaborate how the brain computes and makes decision to elicit complex behaviors. Here, we review current(More)
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