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BACKGROUND A wide array of proteins is secreted into the bile and may be associated with biliary tract diseases. We attempted to discover novel biomarker in bile for cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS Bile was collected from patients with bile duct obstruction. Proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Levels(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Elevated concentrations of Hepatocarcinoma-Intestine-Pancreas/Pancreatitis-associated Protein I (HIP/PAP-I) in pancreatic juice have been reported in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and have been considered as a promising tumor marker. This study was conducted to investigate whether biliary HIP/PAP-I can be used in the(More)
We propose a scheme to generate single-cycle powerful terahertz (THz) pulses by ultrashort intense laser pulses obliquely incident on an underdense plasma slab of a few THz wavelengths in thickness. THz waves are radiated from a transient net current driven by the laser ponderomotive force in the plasma slab. Analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show(More)
The acceleration of ions in collisionless electrostatic shocks and solitary waves, driven by ultrashort intense laser pulses in a thin solid target under different conditions, is investigated theoretically. When a shock is formed, ions with certain initial velocities inside the target can be accelerated by the electrostatic field at the shock front to twice(More)
The generation of laser-driven dense relativistic electron layers from ultra-thin foils and their use for coherent Thomson backscattering is discussed, applying analytic theory and one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. The blow-out regime is explored in which all foil electrons are separated from ions by direct laser action. The electrons follow the(More)
In this paper, we apply an analytical model [V.V. Kulagin et al., Phys. Plasmas 14,113101 (2007)] to describe the acceleration of an ultra-thin electron layer by a schematic single-cycle laser pulse and compare with one-dimensional particle-in-cell (1D-PIC) simulations. This is in the context of creating a relativistic mirror for coherent backscattering and(More)
We study x-ray production by coherent nonlinear Thomson scattering of few-cycle laser pulses from relativistic electron sheets. For an electron sheet thicker than the wavelength of the x-ray, the scattering efficiency is found to increase by two orders of magnitude for single-cycle laser pulses, as compared with longer pulses. This enhancement is attributed(More)
Agarwala et al. proposed two main folding rules, namely, backbone folding and arrow folding, on triangular lattice in 2D HP model [1]. However, these folding rules are not suitable for sequences with sparse H's. In this paper, we propose two folding rules, which can support the weakness of their folding rules. The first rule is called starlike folding which(More)
Powerful coherent terahertz (THz) pulses with a broad spectrum (0.1-3 THz) can be produced from a laser-driven wakefield through linear mode conversion in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas with the maximum plasma density of 10(17) cm(-3). This occurs when a laser pulse, with an optimized duration about 300 fs, is incident either normally or obliquely to the(More)
Coherent terahertz (THz) emission from the vacuum-plasma interface induced through laser wake-field excitation has been investigated by particle-in-cell simulations. The emission frequency appears around tau(-1)(L), where tau(L) is the laser pulse duration, even though the plasma density is distributed inhomogeneously near the interface. The emission(More)