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MD4 is a hash function developed by Rivest in 1990. It serves as the basis for most of the dedicated hash functions such as MD5, SHAx, RIPEMD, and HAVAL. In 1996, Dobbertin showed how to find collisions of MD4 with complexity equivalent to 2 MD4 hash computations. In this paper, we present a new attack on MD4 which can find a collision with probability 2−2(More)
Human ear is a new class of relatively stable biometrics that has drawn researchers' attention recently. In this paper, we propose a complete human recognition system using 3D ear biometrics. The system consists of 3D ear detection, 3D ear identification, and 3D ear verification. For ear detection, we propose a new approach which uses a single reference 3D(More)
This paper introduces an integrated local surface descriptor for surface representation and 3D object recognition. A local surface descriptor is characterized by its centroid, its local surface type and a 2D histogram. The 2D histogram shows the frequency of occurrence of shape index values vs. the angles between the normal of reference feature point and(More)
Insulin resistance contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetes and is a hallmark of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and many cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, quantifying insulin sensitivity/resistance in humans and animal models is of great importance for epidemiological studies, clinical and basic science investigations, and eventual use in clinical(More)
This paper addresses two puzzles about corporate debt: the “credit spread puzzle” – why yield spreads between corporate bonds and treasuries are high and volatile – and the “under-leverage puzzle” – why firms use debt conservatively despite seemingly large tax benefits and low costs of financial distress. I propose a unified explanation for both puzzles:(More)
Emerging epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become a serious concern in mainland China. It caused 126 and 353 fatalities in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The epidemiologic and pathogenic data of the outbreak collected from national laboratory network and notifiable disease surveillance system. To(More)
In Arabidopsis, the tapetum plays important roles in anther development by providing enzymes for callose dissolution and materials for pollen-wall formation, and by supplying nutrients for pollen development. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a male-sterile mutant, defective in tapetal development and function 1 (tdf1), that(More)
Interconnect has become a primary bottleneck in integrated circuit design. As CMOS technology is scaled, it will become increasingly difficult for conventional copper interconnect to satisfy the design requirements of delay, power, bandwidth, and noise. On-chip optical interconnect has been considered as a potential substitute for electrical interconnect in(More)
Intrachip optical interconnects (OIs) have the potential to outperform electrical wires and to ultimately solve the communication bottleneck in high-performance integrated circuits. Performance targets and critical directions for ICs progress are yet to be fully explored. In this paper, the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) is used(More)