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Sea anemone venom is known to contain toxins that are active on voltage-sensitive Na+ channels, as well as on delayed rectifier K+ channels belonging to the Kv1 family. This report describes the properties of a new set of peptides from Anemonia sulcata that act as blockers of a specific member of the Kv3 potassium channel family. These toxins, blood(More)
Leiurotoxin I (scyllatoxin) is a 31-amino acid polypeptide from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus which has been previously isolated and sequenced by others. This paper reports (i) the total synthesis of this scorpion neurotoxin as well as some aspects of its structure-function relationships; (ii) the synthesis of the analog(More)
Calcicludine (CaC) is a 60-amino acid polypeptide from the venom of Dendroaspis angusticeps. It is structurally homologous to the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, to dendrotoxins, which block K+ channels, and to the protease inhibitor domain of the amyloid beta protein that accumulates in Alzheimer disease. Voltage-clamp experiments on a variety of excitable(More)
The effects of polypeptide neurotoxin from Anemonia sulcata on nerve conduction in crayfish giant axons and on frog myelinated fibers have been analyzed. The main features of toxin action are the following: (i) the toxin acts at very low doses and its action is apparently irreversible. (ii) The toxin selectively affects the closing (inactivation) of the Na+(More)
The venom of the black mamba contains a 60-amino acid peptide called calciseptine. The peptide has been fully sequenced. It is a smooth muscle relaxant and an inhibitor of cardiac contractions. Its physiological action resembles that of drugs, such as the 1,4-dihydropyridines, which are important in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Calciseptine,(More)
Two of the tree toxic compounds used in this work, veratridine and the sea anemone toxin, provoke neurotransmitter release from synaptosomes; the third one, tetrodotoxin, prevents the action of both veratridine and the sea anemone toxin. The half-maximum effects of veratridine and sea anemone toxin actions on synaptosomes are K0.5 = 10 and 0.02 micronM,(More)
Injection of 0.2 ng of cRNA encoding the brain Kv1.2 channel into Xenopus oocytes leads to the expression of a very slowly inactivating K+ current. Inactivation is absent in oocytes injected with 20 ng of cRNA although activation remains unchanged. Low cRNA concentrations generate a channel which is sensitive to dendrotoxin I (IC50 = 2 nM at 0.2 ng of(More)
A polypeptide was identified in the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus by its potency to inhibit the high-affinity binding of the radiolabeled snake venom toxin dendrotoxin I (125I-DTX1) to its receptor site. It has been purified, and its properties investigated by different techniques were found to be similar to those of MCD and DTXI,(More)
The cell line C9 used in this paper has a resting potential of --50 mV (+/- 10 mV) but is unable to generate an action potential upon electrical stimulation. The cell membrane has receptors for the selectivity filter toxin tetrodotoxin as well as for the gating system toxins, veratridine, scorpion toxin and sea anemone toxin. The Na+ channel which remains(More)