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This paper presents evidence that the existence of deposit and lending facilities combined with an averaging provision for the reserve requirement are powerful tools to stabilize the overnight rate. We reach this conclusion by comparing the behavior of this rate in Germany before and after the start of the EMU. The analysis of the German experience is(More)
BACKGROUND Peru is one of the Latin American countries with the highest malaria burden, mainly due to Plasmodium vivax infections. However, little is known about P. vivax transmission dynamics in the Peruvian Amazon, where most malaria cases occur. The genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax isolates collected in different communities around(More)
Using a rapid screening method, we investigated the prevalence of fecal carriage of antimicrobial drug-resistant Escherichia coli in 3,174 healthy children from 4 urban settings in Peru and Bolivia. High resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (94%), tetracycline (93%), streptomycin (82%), and chloramphenicol(More)
BACKGROUND Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs in relation to household socioeconomic status for children in two small(More)
Despite being free of charge, treatment adherence to 7-day primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax was estimated at 62.2% among patients along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. The principal reason for non-adherence was the perceived adverse effects related to local humoral illness conceptions that hold that malaria produces a hot(More)
BACKGROUND There is an increasing body of literature reporting treatment failure of the currently recommended radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections. As P. vivax is the main malaria species outside the African continent, emerging tolerance to its radical treatment regime could have major consequences in countries like Peru, where 80% of malaria(More)
BACKGROUND While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities(More)
Anopheles darlingi Root is the most important malaria vector in the Amazonia region of South America. However, continuous propagation of An. darlingi in the laboratory has been elusive, limiting entomological, genetic/genomic, and vector-pathogen interaction studies of this mosquito species. Here, we report the establishment of an An. darlingi colony(More)
BACKGROUND The rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDT) constitute a fast and opportune alternative for non-complicated malaria diagnosis in areas where microscopy is not available. The objective of this study was to validate a RDT named Parascreen under field conditions in Iquitos, department of Loreto, Peru. Parascreen is a RDT that detects the(More)
The increase in CDRs reported for the Republic of Mauritius during the chikungunya epidemic is similar to the fi ndings reported for the neighboring island of Réunion (10). Excess deaths in Réunion and the Republic of Mauri-tius coincided with the epidemic curve of the chikungunya fever outbreak, which suggested an association between these 2 factors. No(More)