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Reasoning is generally seen as a means to improve knowledge and make better decisions. However, much evidence shows that reasoning often leads to epistemic distortions and poor decisions. This suggests that the function of reasoning should be rethought. Our hypothesis is that the function of reasoning is argumentative. It is to devise and evaluate arguments(More)
Much evidence has accumulated in favor of such a dual view of reasoning (Evans, 2003, in press; for arguments against, see Osman, 2004). There is however some vagueness in the way the two systems are characterized. Instead of a principled distinction, we are presented with a bundle of contrasting features-slow/fast, automatic/controlled, explicit/implicit,(More)
The role of reasoning in our moral lives has been increasingly called into question by moral psychology. Not only are intuitions guiding many of our moral judgments and decisions, with reasoning only finding post-hoc rationalizations, but reasoning can sometimes play a negative role, by finding excuses for our moral violations. The observations fit well(More)
Groups do better at reasoning tasks than individuals, and, in some cases, do even better than any of their individual members. Here is an illustration. In the standard version of Wason selection task (Wason, 1966), the most commonly studied problem in the psychology of reasoning, only about 10% of participants give the correct solution, even though it can(More)
According to an infl uential view, one function of mirror neurons (MNs), fi rst discovered in the brain of monkeys, is to underlie third-person mindreading. This view relies on two assumptions: the activity of MNs in an observer ' s brain matches (simulates or resonates with) that of MNs in an agent ' s brain and this resonance process retrodictively(More)
Theoreticians of deliberative democracy have sometimes found it hard to relate to the seemingly contradictory experimental results produced by psychologists and political scientists. We suggest that this problem may be alleviated by inserting a layer of psychological theory between the empirical results and the normative political theory. In particular, we(More)
An Active Appearance Model (AAM) is a variable shape and appearance model built from annotated training images. It has been largely used to synthesize or fit face images. Person-independent face AAM fitting is a challenging open issue. For standard AAMs, fitting a face image for an individual which is not in the training set is often limited in accuracy,(More)
Automatic extraction of facial feature deformations (either due to identity change or expression) is a challenging task and could be the base of a facial expression interpretation system. We use Active Appearance Models and the simultaneous inverse compositional algorithm to extract facial deformations as a starting point and propose a modified version(More)
The study of pragmatics is typically concerned with ostensive communication (especially through language), in which we not only provide evidence for our intended speaker meaning, but also make manifest our intention to do so. This is not, however, the only way in which humans communicate. We also communicate in many non-ostensive ways, and these expressions(More)