Hugo L. Fernandes

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BACKGROUND Uncertainty shapes our perception of the world and the decisions we make. Two aspects of uncertainty are commonly distinguished: uncertainty in previously acquired knowledge (prior) and uncertainty in current sensory information (likelihood). Previous studies have established that humans can take both types of uncertainty into account, often in a(More)
Generalization studies examine the influence of perturbations imposed on one movement onto other movements. The strength of generalization is traditionally interpreted as a reflection of the similarity of the underlying neural representations. Uncertainty fundamentally affects both sensory integration and learning and is at the heart of many theories of(More)
A large number of experiments have asked to what degree human reaching movements can be understood as being close to optimal in a statistical sense. However, little is known about whether these principles are relevant for other classes of movements. Here we analyzed movement in a task that is similar to surfing or snowboarding. Human subjects stand on a(More)
We often make reaching movements having similar trajectories within very different mechanical environments, for example, with and without an added load in the hand. Under these varying conditions, our kinematic intentions must be transformed into muscle commands that move the limbs. Primary motor cortex (M1) has been implicated in the neural mechanism that(More)
The frontal eye field (FEF) plays a central role in saccade selection and execution. Using artificial stimuli, many studies have shown that the activity of neurons in the FEF is affected by both visually salient stimuli in a neuron's receptive field and upcoming saccades in a certain direction. However, the extent to which visual and motor information is(More)
BACKGROUND Unpredicted difficult intubation can have severe consequences, and it is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Although recent studies indicate that specific ultrasonography (US) measurements may be predictors of difficult laryngoscopy, their use is still limited, and its quantification is missing. The purpose of this prospective(More)
The two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) task is the workhorse of psychophysics and is used to measure the just-noticeable difference, generally assumed to accurately quantify sensory precision. However, this assumption is not true for all mechanisms of decision making. Here we derive the behavioral predictions for two popular mechanisms, sampling and(More)
In the Turing test a computer model is deemed to "think intelligently" if it can generate answers that are indistinguishable from those of a human. We developed an analogous Turing-like handshake test to determine if a machine can produce similarly indistinguishable movements. The test is administered through a telerobotic system in which an interrogator(More)
Bayesian statistics defines how new information, given by a likelihood, should be combined with previously acquired information, given by a prior distribution. Many experiments have shown that humans make use of such priors in cognitive, perceptual, and motor tasks, but where do priors come from? As people never experience the same situation twice, they can(More)
Recent studies in motor control have shown that visuomotor rotations for reaching have narrow generalization functions: what we learn during movements in one direction only affects subsequent movements into close directions. Here we wanted to measure the generalization functions for wrist movement. To do so we had 7 subjects performing an experiment holding(More)