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Rates of homogeneous nucleation of ice in micrometre-sized water droplets are reported. Measurements were made using a new system in which droplets were supported on a hydrophobic substrate and their phase was monitored using optical microscopy as they were cooled at a controlled rate. Our nucleation rates are in agreement, given the quoted uncertainties,(More)
The mechanisms by which amorphous intermediates transform into crystalline materials are poorly understood. Currently, attracting enormous interest is the crystallization of amorphous calcium carbonate, a key intermediary in synthetic, biological and environmental systems. Here we attempt to unify many contrasting and apparently contradictory studies by(More)
The obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA) is a disorder characterised by repetitive closure and re-opening of the upper airway during sleep. Upper airway luminal patency is influenced by a number of factors including: intraluminal air pressure, upper airway dilator muscle activity, surrounding extraluminal tissue pressure, and also surface forces which(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate mechanical characterization by the atomic force microscope at the highest spatial resolution requires that topography is deconvoluted from indentation. The measured height of nanoscale features in the atomic force microscope (AFM) is almost always smaller than the true value, which is often explained away as sample deformation, the(More)
The interaction in water of neutral hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon surfaces, prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of surfactant monolayers, has been investigated. The attraction between these hydrophobic surfaces can be measured at separations of 70 to 90 nanometers and thus is of considerably greater range than previously found. Spontaneous cavitation(More)
In this work, we studied the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of CaCO(3) within regular arrays of picoliter droplets created on patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The SAMs provide well-defined substrates that offer control over CaCO(3) nucleation, and we used these impurity-free droplet arrays to study crystal growth in spatially and chemically(More)
This work investigates the early stages of precipitation of calcium sulfate from aqueous solution at room temperature and shows for the first time that amorphous calcium sulfate (ACS) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate are sequentially precipitated prior to calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum).
Upper airway luminal patency is influenced by a number of factors including: intraluminal air pressure, upper airway dilator muscle activity, surrounding extraluminal tissue pressure and surface tension acting within the liquid layer lining the upper airway. In this study we examine the performance characteristics for the 'pull-off' force method for(More)
Heterogeneous nucleation is vital to a wide range of areas as diverse as ice nucleation on atmospheric aerosols and the fabrication of high-performance thin films. There is excellent evidence that surface topography is a key factor in directing crystallization in real systems; however, the mechanisms by which nanoscale pits and pores promote nucleation(More)
We have measured the adsorption isotherms of water on a single surface of freshly cleaved mica with K+ on the surface, and on mica where the K+ has been exchanged for H+. Using a very sensitive interferometric technique, we have found a significant difference between the two isotherms at submonolayer coverage, for relative vapor pressures p/p0 < 0.5. The(More)