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The characterization of individual acetylcholinesterase (AChE) molecular form subcellular pools in adult mammalian skeletal muscle is a critical point when considering such questions as the origin, assembly, and neurotrophic regulation of these molecules. By correlating the results of differential extraction, in vitro collagenase digestion, and in situ(More)
Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are prominent lesions in the aging brain and they may be responsible for cell death in Alzheimer's disease. But a basic question has not been answered: why and how are plaques and tangles formed during aging? In this study, we approach this question by first examining what happens in the aging body. Plaques and(More)
Axotomy-induced increase in 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake by motor nuclei and neuronal chromatolytic changes were studied after subepineural injection of colchicine into the motor nerve. Hypoglossal nuclei of either cats or rats were axotomized bilaterally, while one of the nerves was injected with colchicine or saline proximal to the site of nerve(More)
This work addresses the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the physiological maintenance of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) molecular forms in motor endplate regions of adult Sprague-Dawley rat fast-twitch anterior gracilis muscles. Results show that: (a) CGRP is present in obturator nerve motor neurons which supply the gracilis muscle, as well(More)
This work addresses the presence, pharmacological properties, and anatomical localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide-alpha (CGRPalpha) binding sites and the receptor's accessory proteins in endplate-enriched and non-endplate muscle membrane samples from adult rat gracilis muscles. We examined the binding of (125)I-[Tyr(0)]-CGRPalpha, the competitive(More)
The state of intracellular Ca2+ in aging and in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a key but highly controversial issue and direct measurement of the Ca2+ fluctuations in the living human brain has not been possible thus far. We therefore further considered this issue from a theoretical perspective. Ca2+ signaling mediates many life processes including:(More)
The hypoglossal nucleus was assayed for [14C]2-deoxyglucose uptake 24 h after axotomy with and without colchicine injections into the nerve proximal to the nerve transection. Colchicine effectively blocked the usual increase in [14C]2-deoxyglucose uptake seen after axotomy. The drug also blocked the transport of horseradish peroxidase from the tongue(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been implicated in the trophic regulation of acetyl-choline receptors and G4 acetylcholinesterase at the rat neuromuscular junction. Since these latter molecules exhibit significant changes with advancing age, we examined the possibility that certain aspects of CGRP transport are also influenced by aging. Double(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) acts as an anterograde trophic agent which regulates skeletal muscle acetylcholine receptor function. We examined whether CGRP also influences other synaptic transmission-related molecules, i.e. acetylcholinesterase (AChE) forms. Results show that: (a) CGRP associated with rat anterior gracilis muscle endplates(More)
Abnormality of protease activities and imbalance of intracellular calcium are two most salient aberrant events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). As such, calcium-dependent proteases such as calpain, as a critical link between these two events, must play a key role in the pathogenesis of AD, particularly in the abnormal processing of beta-amyloid precursor(More)