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Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from(More)
The production of high-performance carbon nanotube (CNT) materials demands understanding of the growth behavior of individual CNTs as well as collective effects among CNTs. We demonstrate the first use of grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering to monitor in real time the synthesis of CNT films by chemical vapor deposition. We use a custom-built(More)
Single-particle imaging experiments of biomolecules at x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) require processing hundreds of thousands of images that contain very few x-rays. Each low-fluence image of the diffraction pattern is produced by a single, randomly oriented particle, such as a protein. We demonstrate the feasibility of recovering structural(More)
Coherent (X-ray) diffractive imaging (CDI) is an increasingly popular form of X-ray microscopy, mainly due to its potential to produce high-resolution images and the lack of an objective lens between the sample and its corresponding imaging detector. One challenge, however, is that very high dynamic range diffraction data must be collected to produce both(More)
We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (electron microscope pixel array detector, or EMPAD) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128×128 pixel detector consists of a 500 µm thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific(More)
Schemes for X-ray imaging single protein molecules using new x-ray sources, like x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), require processing many frames of data that are obtained by taking temporally short snapshots of identical molecules, each with a random and unknown orientation. Due to the small size of the molecules and short exposure times, average signal(More)
X-ray serial microcrystallography involves the collection and merging of frames of diffraction data from randomly oriented protein microcrystals. The number of diffracted X-rays in each frame is limited by radiation damage, and this number decreases with crystal size. The data in the frame are said to be sparse if too few X-rays are collected to determine(More)
A technique for measuring interdiffusion in multilayer materials during rapid heating using X-ray reflectivity is described. In this technique the sample is bent to achieve a range of incident angles simultaneously, and the scattered intensity is recorded on a fast high-dynamic-range mixed-mode pixel array detector. Heating of the multilayer is achieved by(More)
X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) have inspired the development of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) as a method to solve the structure of proteins. SFX datasets are collected from a sequence of protein microcrystals injected across ultrashort X-ray pulses. The idea behind SFX is that diffraction from the intense, ultrashort X-ray pulses leaves the(More)
We have developed two techniques for time-resolved x-ray diffraction from bulk polycrystalline materials during dynamic loading. In the first technique, we synchronize a fast detector with loading of samples at strain rates of ~10(3)-10(4) s(-1) in a compression Kolsky bar (split Hopkinson pressure bar) apparatus to obtain in situ diffraction patterns with(More)