Hugh S. Markus

Learn More
BACKGROUND Normal aging is accompanied by a decline of cognitive abilities, and executive skills may be affected selectively, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure and preventive strategies are lacking. It has been suggested that cortical "disconnection" due to the loss of white matter fibers may play an important role. But, to date, there has been(More)
BACKGROUND Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is increasingly used as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis. Its use relies on its ability to predict future clinical cardiovascular end points. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of data to examine this association. METHODS AND RESULTS Using a prespecified search strategy, we identified 8(More)
OBJECTIVES To review the evidence for an association of white matter hyperintensities with risk of stroke, cognitive decline, dementia, and death. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES PubMed from 1966 to 23 November 2009. STUDY SELECTION Prospective longitudinal studies that used magnetic resonance imaging and assessed the impact(More)
Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067(More)
BACKGROUND Damage to white matter tracts, resulting in "cerebral disconnection," may underlie age-related cognitive decline. METHODS Using diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) to investigate white matter damage, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to look at its underlying pathologic basis, the authors investigated the relationship between white matter(More)
To identify new susceptibility loci for psoriasis, we undertook a genome-wide association study of 594,224 SNPs in 2,622 individuals with psoriasis and 5,667 controls. We identified associations at eight previously unreported genomic loci. Seven loci harbored genes with recognized immune functions (IL28RA, REL, IFIH1, ERAP1, TRAF3IP2, NFKBIA and TYK2).(More)
Cross-sectional studies suggest that impaired cerebral haemodynamics is associated with symptomatic status in patients with carotid stenosis and occlusion, but there is relatively little prospective data confirming this association. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was used to determine the reactivity of the middle cerebral artery to 8% carbon dioxide(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral small vessel disease is a common cause of vascular dementia. Both discrete lacunar infarcts and more diffuse ischaemic changes, seen as confluent high signal (leukoaraiosis) on T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), occur. However, there is a weak correlation between T2 lesion load and cognitive impairment. Diffusion tensor MRI(More)
Ankylosing spondylitis is a common form of inflammatory arthritis predominantly affecting the spine and pelvis that occurs in approximately 5 out of 1,000 adults of European descent. Here we report the identification of three variants in the RUNX3, LTBR-TNFRSF1A and IL12B regions convincingly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (P < 5 × 10−8 in the(More)
Metformin is the most commonly used pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes. We report a genome-wide association study for glycemic response to metformin in 1,024 Scottish individuals with type 2 diabetes with replication in two cohorts including 1,783 Scottish individuals and 1,113 individuals from the UK Prospective Diabetes Study. In a combined(More)