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We present the first results from a time-dependent chemical model to include a gas-phase reaction scheme for producing doubly-deuterated species. Under normal conditions the formation of these species is inefficient. However, when the effects of the freeze out of gas phase species onto grains is included in the chemistry we find that the fractionation of(More)
We exploit the ability to precisely control the magnetic domain structure of perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/Pt trilayers to fabricate artificial domain wall arrays and study their transport properties. The scaling behavior of this model system confirms the intrinsic domain wall origin of the magnetoresistance, and systematic studies using domains(More)
The Bose condensate model is used to elucidate the motion of the electron bubble in superfluids. An asymptotic expansion is developed for steady subcritical flow. Numerical integration of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, that describe the evolution of the wavefunctions of the Bose condensate and the impurity, is used to study the nucleation and(More)
In the past decade, mobile devices have supplanted computing applications as the primary drivers for package interconnection and wiring density. This shift to low-cost consumer products has resulted in the need for miniaturized, extremely low-profile and low-cost package substrates. The current leading-edge organic package substrates for portable device SiP(More)
The Galactic Centre is the most active and heavily processed region of the Milky Way, so it can be used as a stringent test for the abundance of deuterium (a sensitive indicator of conditions in the first 1,000 seconds in the life of the Universe). As deuterium is destroyed in stellar interiors, chemical evolution models predict that its Galactic Centre(More)
16 Reconocimientos Este artículo es un llamado a revisar, captar y discutir de mane-ra sistemática las lecciones claves de la capacidad del desarro-llo en el pasado y proyectarlas hacia el futuro, por medio del refinamiento de las políticas fundamentales y las opciones de inversión hechas a lo largo del tiempo para motivar la pronta planeación del(More)
As a surface finish, electroless nickel / electroless palladium / immersion gold (ENEPIG) has received increased attention for both packaging/IC-substrate and PWB applications. With a lower gold thickness compared to conventional electroless nickel / immersion gold (ENIG) the ENEPIG finish offers the potential for higher reliability, better performance and(More)