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Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) is a potent immunomodulator and proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and infectious diseases. For example, plasma levels of TNF alpha are positively correlated with severity and mortality in malaria and leishmaniasis. We have previously described a polymorphism at -308 in(More)
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an induced autoimmune disease mediated by CD4+ T lymphocytes. Analysis of T cell receptors of myelin basic protein-specific encephalitogenic T cell clones derived from six different PL/J (H-2u) or (PL/J x SJL) F1 (H-2uxs) mice revealed a limited heterogeneity in primary structure. In vivo, the majority of T(More)
Over half of the inherited predisposition to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus maps to the region of chromosome 6 that contains the highly polymorphic HLA class II genes which determine immune responsiveness. Analysis of DNA sequences from diabetics indicates that alleles of HLA-DQ beta determine both disease susceptibility and resistance, and that the(More)
Knowing the autoantigen target(s) in an organ-specific autoimmune disease is essential to understanding its pathogenesis. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the islets of Langerhans (insulitis) and destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells. Several beta-cell proteins(More)
Transgenic mice that express the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) on pancreatic islet beta cells (ins-HA) demonstrate tolerance of HA even after immunization with influenza virus. Surprisingly, when Ins-HA mice were mated with a transgenic mouse expressing a TCR specific for an epitope of HA that is restricted by MHC class I H-2Kd (Clone-4 TCR), the(More)
The (NZB X NZW)F1 mouse is recognized as an important animal model of the human disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Groups of NZB/W F1 mice were treated either with IFN-gamma or with PBS. The results demonstrate that IFN-treated animals have accelerated development of fatal immune complex glomerulonephritis relative to age-matched controls. On the(More)
Repeated injections of adult mice with recombinant murine TNF prolong the survival of NZB/W F1 mice, and suppress type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. To determine whether repeated TNF injections suppress T cell function in adult mice, we studied the responses of influenza hemagglutinin-specific T cells derived(More)
The TAP proteins translocate antigenic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum. Investigation of the specificity of this process has been complicated by TAP-independent factors that influence the amount of peptide that accumulates in the ER in transport assays. We have developed an overexpression system in which binding of peptides to the TAP(More)
The nonobese diabetic mouse is recognized as an important animal model for human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. One of the components of susceptibility to this disease has been mapped to the major histocompatibility complex. In this study, full-length cDNA clones encoding the I-A alpha and beta chains from the nonobese diabetic mouse have been(More)