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The impact of the reform efforts of the 1990s, as well as the rapid process of globalization, all resulted in far reaching changes in the structure of the Jamaican economy. With these changes, the existing planning and economic models became increasingly limited in scope as they could not adequately reflect the new structural reality. In March 2006, the(More)
The evolution of lignified xylem allowed for the efficient transport of water under tension, but also exposed the vascular network to the risk of gas emboli and the spread of gas between xylem conduits, thus impeding sap transport to the leaves. A well-known hypothesis proposes that the safety of xylem (its ability to resist embolism formation and spread)(More)
Parenchyma is an important tissue in secondary xylem of seed plants, with functions ranging from storage to defence and with effects on the physical and mechanical properties of wood. Currently, we lack a large-scale quantitative analysis of ray parenchyma (RP) and axial parenchyma (AP) tissue fractions. Here, we use data from the literature on AP and RP(More)
This review examines the roles that ray and axial parenchyma (RAP) plays against fungal pathogens in the secondary xylem of wood within the context of the CODIT model (Compartmentalization of Decay in Trees), a defense concept first conceived in the early 1970s by Alex Shigo. This model, simplistic in its design, shows how a large woody perennial is highly(More)
" People can't get out of their cars unless we provide them with another way to get where they're going. " We would like to thank the Turner Foundation and the Arthur M. Blank Family Foundation for their interest in and support of this work. We spoke with many people during the course of writing this document and would like to thank the following for their(More)
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