Hugh G. Robinson

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A novel technique for microfabricating alkali atom vapor cells is described in which alkali atoms are evaporated into a micromachined cell cavity through a glass nozzle. A cell of interior volume 1 mm3, containing 87Rb and a buffer gas, was made in this way and integrated into an atomic clock based on coherent population trapping. A fractional frequency(More)
We describe the fabrication of chip-sized alkali atom vapor cells using silicon micromachining and anodic bonding technology. Such cells may find use in highly miniaturized atomic frequency references or magnetometers. The cells consist of cavities etched in silicon, with internal volumes as small as 1 mm 3. Two techniques for introducing cesium and a(More)
A low-cost, potentially compact and robust microwave frequency reference can be constructed by use of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent population-trapping resonances in Cs vapor cells. Fractional frequency instabilities of 2 ϫ 10 Ϫ11 /ͱ␶/s have been achieved with a minimum of 7 ϫ 10 Ϫ13 at ␶ ϭ 1000 s. The performance of this device as a(More)
– We report on the fabrication of millimeter-sized vapor cells and their performance in atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). We discuss two fabrication techniques. The first one is based on hollow-core pyrex fibers, fused with a CO 2 laser or micro-torch, and the second one involves anodic bonding of micro-machined silicon wafers to(More)
—The Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) project is a joint NIST-JPL-University of Colorado venture aimed at placing a Cs atomic clock aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This orbiting clock will achieve high accuracy, in part due to the long Ramsey times afforded by the microgravity environment, and allow for precision tests of(More)
We describe recent research at NIST directed towards the development of microfabricated atomic clocks and magnetometers based on coherent population trapping spectroscopy. Clock physics packages based on the D1 transition in 87 Rb achieve a fractional frequency instability below 4 × 10-11 /τ 1/2 [Knappe et al. With volumes around 10 mm 3 and power(More)
We describe recent efforts to develop microfabricated atomic frequency references capable of supporting a wide variety of commercial and military systems such as global positioning and wireless communication. These devices are anticipated to eventually have a volume of 1 cm 3 , dissipate less than 30 mW of electrical power and maintain a fractional(More)
The physics package for a chip-scale atomic frequency reference was constructed and tested. The device has a total volume of 9.5 mm 3 , dissipates 75 mW of electrical power at an ambient temperature of 45 °C and has a short-term fractional frequency instability of 2.4×10-10 /—W. Advanced cell fabrication techniques indicate a long-term instability near(More)
We describe a method for characterizing self-assembled monolayers ͑SAMs͒ in terms of their performance as antirelaxation wall coatings for alkali atom vapor cells. A combination of initial surface analysis and subsequent laser spectroscopy is used to provide insight into the quality of the coating, as well as its performance under the exposure to alkalis as(More)
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