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We studied the influence on circadian rhythms of peptides that have been reported to be colocalized in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP1-27), peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were microinjected into the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) region of Syrian hamsters free running(More)
The neuropeptides pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are implicated in the photic entrainment of circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). We now report that mice carrying a null mutation of the VPAC(2) receptor for VIP and PACAP (Vipr2(-/-)) are incapable of sustaining normal(More)
In mammals, the principal circadian pacemaker is housed in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). The SCN exhibit high levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactivity and two of the three VIP receptors, VPAC(2) and PAC(1), are found in the rat SCN. However, the role of VIP in the SCN remains unclear. In this study, we examined the(More)
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) acting via the VPAC2 receptor and BB2 receptors, respectively, are key signaling pathways in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) circadian clock. Transgenic mice lacking the VPAC2 receptor (Vipr2(-/-)) display a continuum of disrupted behavioral rhythms with only a minority capable of(More)
Expression of coherent and rhythmic circadian (approximately 24 h) variation of behaviour, metabolism and other physiological processes in mammals is governed by a dominant biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Photic entrainment of the SCN circadian clock is mediated, in part, by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)(More)
Environmental illumination profoundly influences mammalian physiology and behaviour through actions on a master circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and other hypothalamic nuclei. The retinal and central mechanisms that shape daily patterns of light-evoked and spontaneous activity in this network of hypothalamic cells are still largely(More)
The firing activity of suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) neurones in vitro shows a circadian rhythm with the peak in average firing frequency during the middle of the projected day. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), which is abundant in the rat SCN, phase-advances the time of peak in SCN neuronal activity when applied in vitro during the late projected(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN) is the master circadian pacemaker or clock in the mammalian brain. Canonical theory holds that the output from this single, dominant clock is responsible for driving most daily rhythms in physiology and behaviour. However, important recent findings challenge this uniclock model and reveal clock-like(More)
Photoreception in the mammalian retina is not restricted to rods and cones but extends to a subset of retinal ganglion cells expressing the photopigment melanopsin (mRGCs). These mRGCs are known to drive such reflex light responses as circadian photoentrainment and pupillomotor movements. By contrast, until now there has been no direct assessment of their(More)
The coordinated activity of thousands of cellular oscillators in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) temporally regulates mammalian physiology to anticipate daily environmental changes across the seasons. The phasing of clock gene expression varies according to anatomical location in the SCN and is thought to encode photoperiodic information. However, it is(More)