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One hundred-forty-five full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase-related sequences were aligned to determine relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) extended family. The alignment reveals only four invariant residues: two glycines, a phenylalanine involved in NAD binding, and a glutamic acid that coordinates the nicotinamide ribose in certain E-NAD(More)
Sequences of 16 NAD and/or NADP-linked aldehyde oxidoreductases are aligned, including representative examples of all aldehyde dehydrogenase forms with wide substrate preferences as well as additional types with distinct specificities for certain metabolic aldehyde intermediates, particularly semialdehydes, yielding pairwise identities from 15 to 83%.(More)
We present an overview of multiple sequence alignments to outline the practical consequences for the choices among different techniques and parameters. We begin with a discussion of the scoring methods for quantifying the quality of a multiple sequence alignment, followed by a discussion of the algorithms implemented within a variety of multiple sequence(More)
Site-directed mutagenesis was performed in class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on both strictly conserved, non-glycine residues, Glu-333 and Phe-335. Both lie in Motif 8 and are indicated to be of central catalytic importance from their positions in the tertiary structure. In addition, a highly conserved residue at the end of Motif 8, Pro-337, and(More)
We have studied the classification of the environment of residues within protein structures. Eisenberg's original idea created environmental categories to discriminate between similar residues [Bowie et al., Science (1991), 253, 164-170]. These environments grouped residues based upon their buried surface area, polarity of the surrounding environment, and(More)
We analyzed sequences surrounding known tyrosine sulfation sites to determine the characteristics that distinguish these sites from those that do not undergo sulfation. Tests evaluated the number and position of acidic, basic, hydrophobic, and small amino acids, as well as disulfide and N-glycosylation (sugar) sites. We determined that composition-based(More)
Experimental structural data on the state of substrates bound to class 3 Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDH3A1) is currently unknown. We have utilized molecular mechanics (MM) simulations, in conjunction with new force field parameters for aldehydes, to study the atomic details of benzaldehyde binding to ALDH3A1. Our results indicate that while the nucleophilic(More)
The posttranslational sulfation of tyrosine has been thought to be initiated by the recognition of specific consensus features by the sulfating enzyme tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST). However, using these recognition features to identify new tyrosine sulfation sites misses recently characterized sites that lack these features. Rigorous analysis of(More)
We have developed a two-level case-based reasoning architecture for predicting protein secondary structure. The central idea is to break the problem into two levels: first, reasoning at the object (protein) level, and using the global information from this level to focus on a more restricted problem space; second, decomposing objects into pieces (segments),(More)