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One hundred-forty-five full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase-related sequences were aligned to determine relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) extended family. The alignment reveals only four invariant residues: two glycines, a phenylalanine involved in NAD binding, and a glutamic acid that coordinates the nicotinamide ribose in certain E-NAD(More)
Sequences of 16 NAD and/or NADP-linked aldehyde oxidoreductases are aligned, including representative examples of all aldehyde dehydrogenase forms with wide substrate preferences as well as additional types with distinct specificities for certain metabolic aldehyde intermediates, particularly semialdehydes, yielding pairwise identities from 15 to 83%.(More)
We present an overview of multiple sequence alignments to outline the practical consequences for the choices among different techniques and parameters. We begin with a discussion of the scoring methods for quantifying the quality of a multiple sequence alignment, followed by a discussion of the algorithms implemented within a variety of multiple sequence(More)
Computer-assisted comparisons of 67 tRNA sequences that function in Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhimurium were used to identify single and multiple nucleotide positions that maximally distinguish the 20 amino acid acceptor groups. Positions in the anticodon were identified most frequently, as expected from the decoding function of this region of the(More)
We have studied the classification of the environment of residues within protein structures. Eisenberg's original idea created environmental categories to discriminate between similar residues [Bowie et al., Science (1991), 253, 164-170]. These environments grouped residues based upon their buried surface area, polarity of the surrounding environment, and(More)
We analyzed sequences surrounding known tyrosine sulfation sites to determine the characteristics that distinguish these sites from those that do not undergo sulfation. Tests evaluated the number and position of acidic, basic, hydrophobic, and small amino acids, as well as disulfide and N-glycosylation (sugar) sites. We determined that composition-based(More)
Procaryotic and eucaryotic transfer RNA sequences are distinct at the 0.5% probability level as demonstrated by permutation testing. Moreover, within each cell type, transfer RNA sequences of different amino acid acceptor classes are distinct at the 0.1% level. We propose that the latter finding reflects sets of nucleotides, other than the anticodons(More)
A novel enzyme mechanism has been predicted by computer simulations for formation of the thiohemiacetal intermediate in the rat ALDH3A1 enzyme. We used molecular mechanics simulations to study the atomic details of substrate binding and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods to study the Cys-243 thiolate attack on benzaldehyde (BA) substrate. BA(More)
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the rat class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) with nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD) cofactors and explicit water molecules are reported. Our results demonstrate that MD simulation using the latest methodologies can maintain the crystal structure of the enzyme, as well as closely reproduce the short timescale dynamics of(More)