Learn More
Although dyskinesia is a frequent and important problem in Parkinson's disease (PD), a reliable assessment measure has not been thoroughly developed and tested. We modified the Obeso dyskinesia scale to create an objective rating scale for dyskinesia assessment during activities of daily living. Thirteen physicians and 15 study coordinators involved in a(More)
Medical treatment of dystonia usually results in an incomplete response and is frequently unsuccessful. Peripheral surgical therapy is available for some focal dystonias, but may only offer temporary relief and may have unacceptable complications. We have used local injections of botulinum toxin into the appropriate muscles for treatment of disabling focal(More)
We studied families to clarify the mode of inheritance of idiopathic torsion dystonia among the Ashkenazim. Probands had symptoms before 28 years of age, had at least one Ashkenazi grandparent, and were ascertained independently of family history and not referred by another relative. All available first- and second-degree relatives were examined, and(More)
We reviewed the records of 358 patients with various forms of focal, segmental, and generalized dystonia who had received pharmacotherapy in a systematic order, beginning with anticholinergics. If no benefit was encountered, we then tested clonazepam, baclofen, and other agents sequentially. In each situation the dosage was gradually increased until benefit(More)
Idiopathic torsion dystonia (ITD) is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions that appear as twisting movements of the limbs, trunk, and/or neck, which can progress to abnormal postures. Most familial forms of ITD follow autosomal dominant transmission with reduced penetrance. The frequency of ITD in the Ashkenazi Jewish(More)
The results of segregation analysis applied to a family study of idiopathic torsion dystonia in Ashkenazi Jews are reported. The study is based on 43 probands (with age at onset prior to 27 years) from 42 nuclear families; pedigrees were extended systematically through all available first- and second-degree relatives, who were directly examined and(More)
We reviewed the treatment outcomes of 81 patients with multifocal tic disorders followed in our movement disorders clinic. From the three drugs used, rank orders of effectiveness were haloperidol, clonazepam, and clonidine. Because of the risk of tardive dyskinesia, we suggest first a trial with clonazepam, later combined with clonidine if clonazepam alone(More)
Tolcapone is a potent, reversible catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor with both peripheral and central activity. It has been demonstrated to improve motor function and allow levodopa dose reductions in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are experiencing either a stable response or motor fluctuations while on levodopa/dopa decarboxylase(More)
The mechanism(s) of inheritance of primary dystonia are unclear. An autosomal recessive form among Ashkenazi Jews and an autosomal dominant form among non-Jews have been proposed. However, the patterns of inheritance, particularly among Ashkenazim, are controversial. In this report we have reviewed the literature particularly as it pertains to the mode of(More)