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Exposure of cultured rat cortical astrocytes to increased concentrations of ammonia has been shown to induce morphological and biochemical changes similar to those found in hyperammonemic (e.g., hepatic) encephalopathy in vivo. Alterations of electrophysiological properties are not well investigated. In this study, we examined the effect of ammonia on the(More)
The early development of functionally active GABA and glutamate receptors on neurons from hippocampus, septal region, and neocortex of embryonic rats were studied using primary dissociated serum-free cell cultures. The responses to GABA and glutamate, applied to individual neurons by pressure ejection, were tested at different developmental stages, starting(More)
BACKGROUND Minor motor disorders (MMDs) associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) predict HIV-1 dementia and death. Little is known about the time course and neuropathologic mechanisms of HIV-1 MMDs. OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between HIV-1 MMDs, as assessed by psychomotor speed, and metabolic alterations in the basal(More)
The trans-activator protein Tat of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is regarded as an injurious molecule in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 associated encephalopathy (HIVE). We investigated the effects of Tat on neuroligand-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase in cultured astroglial cells. Rat cortical astrocytes, human glioblastoma cells and glial(More)
Incubation of cultured cortical astrocytes with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) led to a marked reduction of membrane potential. Here we report that this depolarization depends on activation of protein kinase C (PKC), since it could be blocked by the PKC antagonists staurosporine and H7 and it could be mimicked by direct activation of PKC using the(More)
During inflammation of the central or peripheral nervous system, a high number of immunologically active molecules, including bacterial or viral products as well as host-derived cytokines, are released. Patients suffering from inflammatory CNS or PNS diseases often develop transient symptoms with a rapid recovery, which obviously cannot be accounted for by(More)
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine released by macrophages that strongly stimulates the production of interferon-gamma, thereby linking innate and acquired immunity. Its role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis is under debate and little is known about its role in neuro-AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Serum and(More)
After 1 day in vitro (DIV) glycine (1 mM) evoked chloride-dependent membrane currents in about 50% of primary cultured rat neocortical neurons and more than 98% of the cells were glycine-sensitive after 2 DIV lasting for at least up to 12 DIV which was similar to GABA chemosensitivity. Strychnine (IC50 40 nM) and picrotoxin (30 microM) but not bicuculline(More)
As a model for an integrated neuronal network based on the concept of modular units, we have investigated the occurrence of spontaneous activity and the formation of synaptic circuits in primary cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurons from the embryonic rat. Sodium-dependent action potentials (APs) could be elicited after 1 day in vitro (DIV), whereas(More)