Hubertus Hochrein

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Double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) serves as a danger signal associated with viral infection and leads to stimulation of innate immune cells. In contrast, the immunostimulatory potential of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) is poorly understood and innate immune receptors for ssRNA are unknown. We report that guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich ssRNA(More)
The dendritic cells (DC) of mouse spleen and thymus were examined for expression of CD4 and CD8. Provided care was taken to avoid selective extraction or selective depletion of DC subpopulations, three main types of DC were detected in mouse spleen: a major new population of CD4+8- DEC-205low CD11bhigh DC, together with the previously described CD4-8-(More)
In addition to their bridging function between innate and adaptive immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) may also contribute to primary resistance against infection. Here we analyzed the role of DCs during infection with Listeria monocytogenes by performing systemic in vivo depletion of these cells. We showed that CD8alpha(+) DCs were crucial for L. monocytogenes(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disabling inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that primarily affects young adults. Available therapies can inhibit the inflammatory component of MS but do not suppress progressive clinical disability. An alternative approach would be to inhibit mechanisms that drive the neuropathology of MS,(More)
Dendritic cell (DC) populations consist of multiple subsets that are essential orchestrators of the immune system. Technological limitations have so far prevented systems-wide accurate proteome comparison of rare cell populations in vivo. Here, we used high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics, combined with label-free quantitation algorithms, to(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) not only stimulate T cells effectively but are also producers of cytokines that have important immune regulatory functions. In this study we have extended information on the functional differences between DC subpopulations to include differences in the production of the major immune-directing cytokines IL-12, IFN-alpha, and IFN-gamma.(More)
Type I IFN production in response to the DNA virus herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is essential in controlling viral replication. We investigated whether plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were the major tissue source of IFN-alpha, and whether the production of IFN-alpha in response to HSV-1 depended on Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Total spleen cells or(More)
Loxoribine (7-allyl-7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanosine) acts as synthetic adjuvant in anti-tumor responses. Here we first demonstrate that loxoribine activates cells of the innate immune system selectively via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. TLR7- and MyD88-deficient immune cells fail to proliferate or produce cytokines in(More)
Interleukin (IL)-12 may be secreted as a bioactive T helper type 1 (Th1) cell-inducing heterodimer, as a monomer, or as an antagonistic homodimer. We analyzed the IL-12 produced by mouse splenic dendritic cells (DCs), human thymic DCs, and cultured human monocyte-derived DCs. IL-12 production required both a microbial or T cell-derived stimulus and an(More)
Host protection from infection relies on the recognition of pathogens by innate pattern-recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Here, we show that the orphan receptor TLR13 in mice recognizes a conserved 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence that is the binding site of macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin group (MLS) antibiotics(More)