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Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) has been identified in organs of many plant species within Juglandaceae family. This secondary metabolite is considered as a highly bioactive substance that functions as direct oxidant stimulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in acceptor plants. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, E.C.2.5.1.18) represent(More)
The presented study aimed at establishing the prevalence and co-infection rates of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from the central and eastern parts of Poland. The common tick individuals were gathered in the years 2008-2009. Questing ticks were sampled by dragging a white woollen flag over lower(More)
The aim of the study was to elucidate the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti co-infection in Ixodes ricinus populations within the central-eastern region of Poland. The prevalence of analysed tick-borne human pathogens in single and polymicrobial infections in I. ricinus ticks were analysed using the conventional and nested PCR(More)
The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence and coinfection rates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genotypes in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks sampled from diverse localities in central and eastern regions of Poland. In years 2009-2011, questing nymphs and adults of I. ricinus were collected using a flagging method at 18 localities representing(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks within Nadbuzański Landscape Park (central-eastern Mazovian province, Poland). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 685 of ticks (187 adults, 393 nymphs and 105 larvae) were collected in the surroundings of seven places: Korczew, Sterdyń,(More)
The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum(More)
The insecticidal activity of plant lectins against a wide range of insect species have been intensively studied. Understanding the mechanism of the toxicity of lectins is one of the studied aspects. In the present research, the first step was determine the effect of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) on the development, fecundity and mortality of grain aphid. Next,(More)
In the current work, the toxicity and mechanism of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), lectin isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to the grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) were studied. When S. avenae was fed an artificial diet containing the lectin PHA, toxicity assays indicated that fecundity decreased, the pre-reproductive period and generation time(More)
The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain(More)
The objectives of this study were to elucidate the impact of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) feeding on functioning of the proteolytic machinery in bird cherry leaves. Biochemical analyses proved that R. padi feeding in tissues of primary host stimulated activity of the two major fractions of proteinases (extracted at the optimal pH values:(More)