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CYP703 is a cytochrome P450 family specific to land plants. Typically, each plant species contains a single CYP703. Arabidopsis thaliana CYP703A2 is expressed in the anthers of developing flowers. Expression is initiated at the tetrad stage and restricted to microspores and to the tapetum cell layer. Arabidopsis CYP703A2 knockout lines showed impaired(More)
Neurons have a high demand for cholesterol to develop and maintain membrane-rich structures like axons, dendrites and synapses, but it remains unclear, whether they can satisfy their need by costly de novo synthesis. To address this, we compared cholesterol synthesis in serum-free cultures of highly purified CNS neurons and glial cells from postnatal rats.(More)
The plant sterol pathway exhibits a major biosynthetic difference as compared with that of metazoans. The committed sterol precursor is the pentacyclic cycloartenol (9β,19-cyclolanost-24-en-3β-ol) and not lanosterol (lanosta-8,24-dien-3β-ol), as it was shown in the late sixties. However, plant genome mining over the last years revealed the general presence(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine whose synthesis is induced by a variety of stimuli including interleukin-1 (IL-1), substance P (SP), and histamine. Because IL-6 has been implicated in the etiopathology of different human diseases including multiple myeloma, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(More)
The protease inhibitor alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) has been suggested to be involved in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased levels of ACT have been found in serum and brains of AD patients, and ACT has been proposed to regulate beta-amyloid fibril formation in vitro. To gain insight into the regulation of ACT in the brain, we investigated(More)
Sterols are crucial lipid components that regulate membrane permeability and fluidity and are the precursors of bioactive steroids. The plant sterols exist as three major forms, free sterols, steryl glycosides and steryl esters. The storage of steryl esters in lipid droplets has been shown to contribute to cellular sterol homeostasis. To further document(More)
Tobacco BY-2 cell suspensions are our preferred model for studying isoprenoid biosynthesis pathways, due to their easy genetic transformation and the efficient absorption of metabolic precursors, intermediates, and/or inhibitors. Using this model system, we have analyzed the effects of chemical and genetic blockage of cycloartenol synthase (CAS, EC(More)
Virus-induced silencing of sterol biosynthetic genes: identi®cation of a Nicotiana tabacum L. obtusifoliol-14a-demethylase (CYP51) by genetic manipulation of the sterol biosynthetic pathway in Nicotiana benthamiana L.* Abstract Obtusifoliol-14a-demethylase (CYP51) is implicated in plant sterol biosynthesis. An Arabidopsis expressed sequence tag encoding a(More)
The amount of cholesterol made by many plants is not negligible. Whereas cholesterogenesis in animals was elucidated decades ago, the plant pathway has remained enigmatic. Among other roles, cholesterol is a key precursor for thousands of bioactive plant metabolites, including the well-known Solanum steroidal glycoalkaloids. Integrating tomato transcript(More)
Probing molecules using perdeuteration (i.e deuteration in which all hydrogen atoms are replaced by deuterium) is extremely useful in a wide range of biophysical techniques. In the case of lipids, the synthesis of the biologically relevant unsaturated perdeuterated lipids is challenging and not usually pursued. In this work, perdeuterated phospholipids and(More)