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The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a noninvasive method with which to measure respiratory mechanics. FOT employs small-amplitude pressure oscillations superimposed on the normal breathing and therefore has the advantage over conventional lung function techniques that it does not require the performance of respiratory manoeuvres. The present European(More)
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices with a servo-mechanism to control pressure have recently been developed. We evaluated six such devices and three conventional systems in terms of effectiveness in maintaining constant pressure. Machines were tested with pressure levels of 5, 10 and 15 cmH2O. Dynamic behaviour was evaluated: 1) by(More)
To assess the effects of obesity on pulmonary function, 46 healthy subjects exhibiting various degrees of obesity underwent lung function tests. Subjects were divided into three groups according to body mass index (BMI): 13 had minimal obesity (BMI, 25 to 29 kg/m2, group 1); 24 had a BMI in the 30 to 40 range (group 2); and 9 displayed to morbid obesity(More)
We studied eight heavy snorers with upper airway resistance syndrome to investigate potential effects of sleep on expiratory airway and lung resistance, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure, hyperinflation, and elastic inspiratory work of breathing (WOB). Wakefulness and non-rapid-eye-movement sleep with high- and with low-resistance inspiratory(More)
Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a vesicant chemical warfare agent. To investigate the respiratory damages it causes, we studied the effects on guinea pigs of an intratracheal injection of 0.3 mg/kg of SM 5 h and 14 days after injection. Five hours after SM intoxication, respiratory system resistance and microvascular permeability were increased. These(More)
BACKGROUND Pressure-controlled (PCV) and pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation (PCIRV) have been proposed instead of volume-controlled conventional ratio ventilation (VC) with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) for patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The advantages advocated with the use of PCIRV are to decrease airway(More)
The work of breathing is a major determinant of the success of weaning from mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study was to assess whether an inhaled bronchodilator could reduce the mechanical load on the respiratory muscles and diminish the work. For this purpose, 15 intubated patients in the process of weaning from mechanical ventilation inhaled the(More)
Respiratory impedance was estimated between 4 and 30 Hz by spectral analysis of the mouth flow and pressure signals measured in spontaneously breathing subjects when applying a pseudorandom pressure excitation at the mouth. The signals were submitted to antialiasing low-pass filtering followed by digital preprocessing before the calculation of spectra by a(More)
Breathing through an endotracheal tube and a demand valve may increase the work performed by the respiratory muscles. Inspiratory pressure support (PS) is known to reduce this work and might therefore compensate for this increased requirement. To test this hypothesis, we measured the work of breathing (WOB) in 11 patients whose tracheas were intubated. Five(More)
Ideally, the inspired (tidal) volume (V(T)) provided by a volume-controlled ventilation device should not change when the pressure imposed on the ventilator varies. A bench study evaluation of V(T) versus pressure was performed on 10 commercially available devices. The difference between the desired V(T) and the observed V(T) reached 100 mL for some devices(More)