Hubert L. Snodgrass

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Permethrin is an agricultural insecticide of great interest to the military because of its repellency toward disease-bearing insects when impregnated into uniforms. However, migration of the substance from clothing to the skin surface is of toxicological importance. To quantitate leaching from treated clothing, studies were performed in which swatches of(More)
N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (m-Det) is a widely used insect repellent readily available in various formulations. Radiolabeled (14C) m-Det was evaluated for rate and extent of skin penetration in three animal species. Absorption was quantitated in excreta for 7 days following a single dermal application and deposition monitored in tissues at necropsy. The(More)
Permethrin was applied to the shaved dorsal interscapular region of C57Bl/6N mice at doses of 0.5, 1.5 or 5.0 microl/day. These doses corresponded to approximately 22-220 mg/kg/day topical insecticide. Mice were exposed to permethrin in this manner daily for 10 or 30 consecutive days, or every other day for 7 or 14 exposures. The splenic macrophage(More)
1Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology,Virginia-MarylandRegional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA 2College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, Louisiana, USA 3The Institute for Global Risk Research, LLC, Bethesda, Maryland, USA(More)
Three (14)C-labeled candidate insect repellents, cyclohexamethylene carbamide, n-butylsufonimidocyclohexamethylene and 2-hydroxyethylcyclohexane carboxylate were evaluated for skin penetration in dogs and rabbits. Absorption of the repellents was determined by monitoring excreted urine daily for seven days following topical application. Significant(More)
Diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) has been identified as a groundwater contaminant on or near sites of former chemical warfare production facilities. The material is a by-product of GB (or Sarin) manufacture and does not occur naturally in the environment. The present study measured the dermal absorption of 14C-labeled DIMP in swine to establish the(More)
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