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Ethanologenic Thermoanaerobacter species produce ethanol from lignocellulose derived substrates at temperatures above 70 degrees C. In the final steps of ethanol formation, two bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhB and AdhE, and an alcohol dehydrogenase, AdhA, catalyze redox reactions between acetyl-CoA and ethanol via an acetaldehyde(More)
Anaerobes can obtain the entire cell's ATP by glycolysis and remove resulting reducing power by fermentation. There is a delicate balance in redox status to obtain a maximal growth of these cells, and the conditions to change redox fluxes can induce kinds of changes in metabolism. The fundamental knowledge on sensing redox status and coupling redox signals(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the disease burden attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China, to identify high-burden groups and to inform improvement measures. METHODS The disease burden attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China was estimated for diseases resulting from exposure to biologically contaminated(More)
Bacillus subtilis produces acetoin as a major extracellular product. However, the by-products of 2,3-butanediol, lactic acid and ethanol were accompanied in the NADH-dependent pathways. In this work, metabolic engineering strategies were proposed to redistribute the carbon flux to acetoin by manipulation the NADH levels. We first knocked out the acetoin(More)
Acetoin, a major extracellular catabolic product of Bacillus subtilis cultured on glucose, is widely used to add flavor to food and also serves as a precursor for chemical synthesis. The biosynthesis of acetoin from pyruvate requires the enzymes α-acetolactate synthase (ALS) and α-acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC), both of which are encoded by the alsSD(More)
A beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene (nag84A) was cloned from Clostridium paraputrificum M-21 in Escherichia coli. The nag84A gene consists of an open reading frame of 4647 by encoding 1549 amino acids, with a deduced molecular weight of 174,311, which have a catalytic domain belonging to family 84 of the glycoside hydrolases. Nag84A was purified from a(More)
The gene of beta-glucuronidase from Thermotoga maritima was cloned into the plasmid pHsh, and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity by a simple step, heat treatment. The recombinant enzyme had a molecular mass of 65.9 kD. The optimal activity of beta-glucuronidase was found at pH 5.0 and 80 degrees C. The(More)
This study was aimed at increasing the glycolytic flux of the multivitamin-auxotrophic yeast Torulopsis glabrata by disturbing oxidative phosphorylation. We examined two different strategies to impede oxidative phosphorylation. The first strategy was disruption of the activity of the electron transfer chain (ETC), by either of two approaches. One was(More)
A constitutive expression vector for rhIL-2-HSA fusion protein production in yeast Pichia pastoris was constructed. The coding gene was placed in frame with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor secretion signal sequence under the control of the GAP promoter. The recombinant plasmid pGAPZαA-rhIL-2-HSA was integrated into the genome of the P. pastoris GS115.(More)
To describe the epidemiologic profile and trends of imported malaria, and to identify the populations at risk of malaria in China during 2010–2014. This is a descriptive analysis of laboratory confirmed malaria cases during 2010–2014. Data were obtained from surveillance reports in the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP).(More)