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The differentiation and maturation of skeletal muscle cells into functional fibers is coordinated largely by inductive signals which act through discrete intracellular signal transduction pathways. Recently, the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin (PP2B) and the family of transcription factors known as NFAT have been implicated in the regulation of(More)
BACKGROUND Left ventricular failure is commonly preceded by a period of hypertrophy. Intriguingly, many of the signaling pathways that have been implicated in the regulation of hypertrophy, including the 3 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, stress-activated protein kinase, and p38), protein phosphatase,(More)
We have previously shown that the calcium-calmodulin-regulated phosphatase calcineurin (PP2B) is sufficient to induce cardiac hypertrophy that transitions to heart failure in transgenic mice. Given the rapid onset of heart failure in these mice, we hypothesized that calcineurin signaling would stimulate myocardial cell apoptosis. However, utilizing multiple(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are important regulators of cell growth, proliferation, and stress responsiveness. A family of dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) act as critical counteracting factors that directly regulate the magnitude and duration of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular(More)
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a pancreatic beta cell autoantigen in humans and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. beta Cell-specific suppression of GAD expression in two lines of antisense GAD transgenic NOD mice prevented autoimmune diabetes, whereas persistent GAD expression in the beta cells in the other four lines of antisense GAD transgenic NOD mice(More)
Multiple intracellular signaling pathways have been shown to regulate the hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes. Both necessary and sufficient roles have been described for the mitogen activated protein kinase(1) (MAPK) signaling pathway, specific protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, and calcineurin. Here we investigate the interdependence between calcineurin,(More)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited form of heart disease that affects 1 in 500 individuals. Here it is shown that calcineurin, a calcium-regulated phosphatase, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCM. Administration of the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporin and FK506 prevented disease in mice that were genetically predisposed to(More)
Cardiac hypertrophy is a major predictor of future morbidity and mortality. Recent investigation has centered around identifying the molecular signaling pathways that regulate cardiac myocyte reactivity with the goal of modulating pathologic hypertrophic programs. One potential regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is the calcium-sensitive phosphatase(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular hypertension resulting in increased cardiac load is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and is a leading predicator for progressive heart disease. The molecular signaling pathways that respond to increases in cardiac load are poorly understood. One potential regulator of the hypertrophic response is the calcium-sensitive(More)