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Bacterial plant pathogens manipulate their hosts by injection of numerous effector proteins into host cells via type III secretion systems. Recognition of these effectors by the host plant leads to the induction of a defense reaction that often culminates in a hypersensitive response manifested as cell death. Genes encoding effector proteins can be(More)
We have generated an ultra-high-density genetic map for lettuce, an economically important member of the Compositae, consisting of 12,842 unigenes (13,943 markers) mapped in 3696 genetic bins distributed over nine chromosomal linkage groups. Genomic DNA was hybridized to a custom Affymetrix oligonucleotide array containing 6.4 million features representing(More)
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Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a major crop and a member of the large, highly successful Compositae family of flowering plants. Here we present a reference assembly for the species and family. This was generated using whole-genome shotgun Illumina reads plus in vitro proximity ligation data to create large superscaffolds; it was validated genetically and(More)
The experimental induction of RNA silencing in plants often involves expression of transgenes encoding inverted repeat (IR) sequences to produce abundant dsRNAs that are processed into small RNAs (sRNAs). These sRNAs are key mediators of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and determine its specificity. Despite its application in agriculture and(More)
XML is becoming one of the most common means to exchange data throughout the internet. Biological research is advancing at very high rates as a result of the large amounts of information that can be passed to researchers throughout the world, thereby increasing collaboration and reducing redundancy. There are limitations to the use of this data if there is(More)
Constraints are important to ensure consistency and validity of biological data to computerize biological findings. Incorrect data could lead to serious scientific problems when conducting further biology research and experiments. We propose an XML-based active rule system named BioRule to enforce constraints on top of existing data sources. The BioRule(More)
Modifications of plant immune complexes by secreted pathogen effectors can trigger strong immune responses mediated by the action of nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat immune receptors. Although some strains of the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae harbor effectors that individually can trigger immunity, the plant's response may be suppressed by other(More)
Revegetation in the water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) could stabilize riverbanks, maintain local biodiversity, and improve reservoir water quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR). However, submergence and cadmium (Cd) may seriously affect the survival of transplantations. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is a stoloniferous and rhizomatous(More)
Excess aluminum (Al) in soils due to acid rain leaching is toxic to water resources and harmful to soil organisms and plants. This study investigated adverse impacts of Al levels upon earthworms (Eisenia fetida) from the latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiments were performed to examine the survival and avoidance of earthworms from high Al(More)