Learn More
BACKGROUND Although a previous study predicted that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) originated in the Malaysia/Indonesia region, the virus is known to circulate mainly on the Asian continent. However, there are no reported systematic studies that adequately define how JEV then dispersed throughout Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In order to(More)
Recent studies stress the importance of antimicrobial peptides in protecting the urinary tract from infection. Previously, we have shown that ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7) is a potent antimicrobial peptide that has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against uropathogenic bacteria. The urothelium of the lower urinary tract and intercalated cells of the(More)
Protocatechuic acid (PA), a major metabolite of anthocyanins, has been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effects of PA on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in microglia have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and molecular mechanisms of PA on LPS-stimulated(More)
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a global public health issue that has spread widely to more than 20 countries in Asia and has extended its geographic range to the south Pacific region including Australia. JE has become the most important cause of viral encephalitis in the world. Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEV) are divided into five genotypes, based on the(More)
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of severe viral encephalitis that affects individuals in Asia, western Pacific countries, and northern Australia. Although 67,900 JE cases have been estimated among 24 JE epidemic countries annually, only 10,426 have been reported in 2011. With the establishment of JE surveillance and vaccine use in some countries, the JE(More)
The mechanisms that maintain sterility in the urinary tract are incompletely understood; however, recent studies stress the importance of antimicrobial peptides in protecting the urinary tract from infection. Ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7), a potent antimicrobial peptide contributing to urinary tract sterility, is expressed by intercalated cells in the renal(More)
References 1. Paterson DL, Bonomo RA. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: a clinical update. outbreaks of clonally related CTX-M-14 beta-lactamase–producing Escherichia coli strains in the Calgary health region. Discovery of CTX-M-like extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli isolates from fi ve U. Perea EJ, et al. Epidemiology and clinical(More)
Historically, Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype III (GIII) has been responsible for human diseases. In recent years, JEV genotype I (GI) has been isolated from mosquitoes collected in numerous countries, but has not been isolated from patients with encephalitis. In this study, we report recovery of JEV GI live virus and identification of JEV GI RNA(More)
Genome sequencing and virulence studies of 2 Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEVs) from bats in Yunnan, China, showed a close relationship with JEVs isolated from mosquitoes and humans in the same region over 2 decades. These results indicate that bats may play a role in human Japanese encephalitis outbreaks in this region.
BACKGROUND The mechanisms that maintain sterility in the urinary tract are incompletely understood. Recent studies have implicated the importance of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) in protecting the urinary tract from infection. Here, we characterize the expression and relevance of the AMP human alpha-defensin 5 (HD5) in the human kidney and urinary tract in(More)