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Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism that mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles. We report a potent small molecule inhibitor of autophagy named "spautin-1" for specific and potent autophagy inhibitor-1. Spautin-1 promotes the degradation of Vps34 PI3 kinase complexes by inhibiting two ubiquitin-specific(More)
Mammalian oocytes are arrested in meiotic prophase by an inhibitory signal from the surrounding somatic cells in the ovarian follicle. In response to luteinizing hormone (LH), which binds to receptors on the somatic cells, the oocyte proceeds to second metaphase, where it can be fertilized. Here we investigate how the somatic cells regulate the(More)
Hsp90 is an abundant molecular chaperone involved in many biological systems. We report here the crystal structures of the unliganded and ADP bound fragments containing the N-terminal and middle domains of HtpG, an E. coli Hsp90. These domains are not connected through a flexible linker, as often portrayed in models, but are intimately associated with one(More)
In countries where adulthood is considered to be attained at age eighteen, 2011 can be the point at which the diphosphoinositol polyphosphates might formally be described as "coming of age", since these molecules were first fully defined in 1993 (Menniti et al., 1993; Stephens et al., 1993b). But from a biological perspective, these polyphosphates cannot(More)
Ins(1,4,5)P(3) is a classical intracellular messenger: stimulus-dependent changes in its levels elicits biological effects through its release of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. The Ins(1,4,5)P(3) response is "switched off" by its metabolism to a range of additional inositol phosphates. These metabolites have themselves come to be collectively described as a(More)
Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) is the target for sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil, which are drugs for treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. We report here the crystal structures of a fully active catalytic domain of unliganded PDE5A1 and its complexes with sildenafil or icarisid II. These structures together with the(More)
Inositol trisphosphate kinases (IP3Ks) and inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks) each regulate specialized signalling activities by phosphorylating either InsP3 or InsP6 respectively. The molecular basis for these different kinase activities can be illuminated by a structural description of IP6K. Here we describe the crystal structure of an Entamoeba(More)
T cell receptors (TCR) adopt a similar orientation when binding with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, yet the biological mechanism that generates this similar TCR orientation remains obscure. We show here the cocrystallographic structure of a mouse TCR bound to a human MHC molecule not seen by the TCR during thymic development. The(More)
Crystal structures of seven phosphodiesterase families (PDE1-5, 7, 9) show a conserved core catalytic domain that contains about 300 amino acids and fourteen alpha-helices. The catalytic domains of the PDE families 1-4, 7, and 9 have a uniform conformation. However, the H-loop at the active site of PDE5 shows four different conformations upon binding of(More)
DJ-1 is a protein involved in multiple physiological processes, including cancer, Parkinson's disease, and male fertility. It is unknown how DJ-1 functions in the apparently different systems. The crystal structure of DJ-1 at 1.6 A resolution shows that DJ-1 is a helix-strand-helix sandwich and forms a dimer. The DJ-1 structure is similar to the members of(More)