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Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism that mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles. We report a potent small molecule inhibitor of autophagy named "spautin-1" for specific and potent autophagy inhibitor-1. Spautin-1 promotes the degradation of Vps34 PI3 kinase complexes by inhibiting two ubiquitin-specific(More)
In countries where adulthood is considered to be attained at age eighteen, 2011 can be the point at which the diphosphoinositol polyphosphates might formally be described as "coming of age", since these molecules were first fully defined in 1993 (Menniti et al., 1993; Stephens et al., 1993b). But from a biological perspective, these polyphosphates cannot(More)
We obtained detailed kinetic characteristics--stoichiometry, reaction rates, substrate affinities and equilibrium conditions--of human PPIP5K2 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase 2). This enzyme synthesizes 'high-energy' PP-InsPs (diphosphoinositol polyphosphates) by metabolizing InsP₆ (inositol hexakisphosphate) and 5-InsP₇ (5-diphosphoinositol(More)
Diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase 2 (PPIP5K2) is one of the mammalian PPIP5K isoforms responsible for synthesis of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (inositol pyrophosphates; PP-InsPs), regulatory molecules that function at the interface of cell signaling and organismic homeostasis. The development of drugs that inhibit PPIP5K2 could have both(More)
Pharmacological tools-'chemical probes'-that intervene in cell signaling cascades are important for complementing genetically-based experimental approaches. Probe development frequently begins with a high-throughput screen (HTS) of a chemical library. Herein, we describe the design, validation, and implementation of the first HTS-compatible strategy against(More)
To synthesise stabilised mimics of InsP8, the most phosphorylated inositol phosphate signalling molecule in Nature, we replaced its two diphosphate (PP) groups with either phosphonoacetate (PA) or methylenebisphosphonate (PCP) groups. Utility of the PA and PCP analogues was verified by structural and biochemical analyses of their interactions with enzymes(More)
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