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Maintaining cellular Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis is pivotal for plant survival in saline environments. However, knowledge about the molecular regulatory mechanisms of Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis in plants under salt stress is largely lacking. In this report, the Arabidopsis double mutants atrbohD1/F1 and atrbohD2/F2, in which the AtrbohD and AtrbohF genes are(More)
Vertebrate ancestors appeared in a uniform, shallow water environment, but modern species flourish in highly variable niches. A striking array of phenotypes exhibited by contemporary animals is assumed to have evolved by accumulating a series of selectively advantageous mutations. However, the experimental test of such adaptive events at the molecular level(More)
Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown.(More)
In invertebrates, C-type lectins play crucial roles in innate immunity responses by mediating the recognition of host cells to pathogens and clearing microinvaders, which interact with carbohydrates and function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). A novel C-type lectin gene (LvLec) cDNA was cloned from hemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei by expressed(More)
Asynchronous parallel optimization received substantial successes and extensive attention recently. One of core theoretical questions is how much speedup (or benefit) the asynchronous parallelization can bring to us. This paper provides a comprehensive and generic analysis to study the speedup property for a broad range of asynchronous parallel stochastic(More)
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become a gold standard for the quantification of nucleic acids and microorganism abundances, in which plasmid DNA carrying the target genes are most commonly used as the standard. A recent study showed that supercoiled circular confirmation of DNA appeared to suppress PCR amplification. However, to what extent to which(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the brain iron deposits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy age-matched controls using phase imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-six AD patients and 24 healthy controls were recruited. A three-dimensional high-resolution, gradient-echo sequence was used to acquire phase data in the coronal plane. A high-pass(More)
Through the analysis of hundreds of full-length cDNAs from fifteen species representing all major orders of dinoflagellates, we demonstrate that nuclear-encoded mRNAs in all species, from ancestral to derived lineages, are trans-spliced with the addition of the 22-nt conserved spliced leader (SL), DCCGUAGCCAUUUUGGCUCAAG (D = U, A, or G), to the 5' end. SL(More)
The C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins are a family of proteins characterized by a globular C1q (gC1q) domain in their C-terminus. They are involved in various processes of vertebrates and supposed to be an important pattern recognition receptor in innate immunity of invertebrates. In this study, a novel member of C1q-domain-containing protein family(More)