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Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, peanuts, soy beans, and pomegranates, possesses a wide range of biological effects. Since resveratrol's properties seem ideal for treating neurodegenerative diseases, its ability to diminish amyloid plaques was tested. Mice were fed clinically feasible dosages of resveratrol for forty-five days. Neither(More)
An inflammatory response in the central nervous system mediated by activation of microglia is a key event in the early stages of the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavanoid derived from milk thistle that has anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and anticarcinogenic effects. In this study, we first investigated the(More)
Understanding the molecular sequence of events that culminate in multiple abnormalities in brains from patients that died with Alzheimer's disease (AD) will help to reveal the mechanisms of the disease and identify upstream events as therapeutic targets. The activity of the mitochondrial α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) in homogenates from(More)
The neuroprotective effect of MK801 against hypoxia and/or reoxygenation-induced neuronal cell injury and its relationship to neuronal nitric oxide synthetase (nNOS) expression were examined in cultured rat cortical cells. Treatment of cortical neuronal cells with hypoxia (95% N(2)/5% CO(2)) for 2 h followed by reoxygenation for 24 h induced a release of(More)
Diminished thiamine (vitamin B1) dependent processes and oxidative stress accompany Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thiamine deficiency in animals leads to oxidative stress. These observations suggest that thiamin may act as an antioxidant. The current experiments first tested directly whether thiamin could act as an antioxidant, and then examined the(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in cell death in many neurodegenerative diseases. Diminished activity of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), a key and arguably rate-limiting enzyme of the Krebs cycle, occurs in these disorders and may underlie decreased brain metabolism. The present studies used(More)
Sesame antioxidants have been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation and regulate cytokine production. In this study, we focused on the effect of sesamin and sesamolin, on nitric oxide (NO) induction by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the murine microglial cell line BV-2 and rat primary microglia. The results showed that sesamin and sesamolin significantly(More)
Thiamine dependent enzymes are diminished in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Thiamine deficiency in vitro and in rodents is a useful model of this reduction. Thiamine interacts with cellular calcium stores. To directly test the relevance of the thiamine dependent changes to dynamic processes in AD, the interactions must be studied in cells from patients with AD.(More)
Brain activities of the mitochondrial enzyme α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) are reduced in Alzheimer's disease and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. The goal of the present study was to test the consequences of mild impairment of KGDHC on the structure, protein signaling and dynamics (mitophagy, fusion, fission, biogenesis) of(More)
Reversible post-translation modifications of proteins are common in all cells and appear to regulate many processes. Nevertheless, the enzyme(s) responsible for the alterations and the significance of the modification are largely unknown. Succinylation of proteins occurs and causes large changes in the structure of proteins; however, the source of the(More)
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