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We identified the LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lmx1b in the mesencephalic dopamine (mesDA) systems of embryos and adults. Analysis of spatiotemporal expression in Lmx1b null mutants and wild-type mice implicated a cascade involving Lmx1b in the early development of mesDA neurons. Although disruption of this cascade did not block induction of(More)
Angiogenesis is required for a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. The endothelial cell-specific mitogen vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major mediator of pathological angiogenesis. Also, the expression of VEGF and its two receptors, Flt-1 and Flk-1/KDR, is related to the formation of blood vessels in mouse and rat(More)
The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and its signal characteristics were discussed using modern spectral estimation technique. The power spectra density (PSD) was calculated using the auto-regression (AR) model of modern spectra estimation. The Levinson-Durbin recursion method was used to estimate the model parameters which(More)
We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the(More)
A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1, caused disease outbreaks in poultry in China and seven other east Asian countries between late 2003 and early 2004; the same virus was fatal to humans in Thailand and Vietnam. Here we demonstrate a series of genetic reassortment events traceable to the precursor of the H5N1 viruses that caused the initial(More)
The NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) subclass of glutamate receptor is essential for the synaptic plasticity thought to underlie learning and memory and for synaptic refinement during development. It is currently believed that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is a heteromultimeric channel comprising the ubiquitous NR1 subunit and at least one regionally localized NR2(More)
Congeners of nitrogen monoxide (NO) are neuroprotective and neurodestructive. To address this apparent paradox, we considered the effects on neurons of compounds characterized by alternative redox states of NO: nitric oxide (NO.) and nitrosonium ion (NO+). Nitric oxide, generated from NO. donors or synthesized endogenously after NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate)(More)
During endocytosis, clathrin and the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2, assisted by a variety of accessory factors, help to generate an invaginated bud at the cell membrane. One of these factors is Eps15, a clathrin-coat-associated protein that binds the alpha-adaptin subunit of AP-2. Here we investigate the function of Eps15 by characterizing an important(More)
Dorsal-ventral limb patterning in vertebrates is thought to be controlled by the LIM-homeodomain protein Lmx1b which is expressed in a spatially and temporally restricted manner along the dorsal-ventral limb axis. Here we describe the phenotype resulting from targeted disruption of Lmx1b. Our results demonstrate that Lmx1b is essential for the specification(More)
The receptor erbB2/neu is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or erbB) family that also includes erbB3 and erbB4. Amplification of the erbB2/neu gene is found in many cancer types and its overexpression is correlated with a poor prognosis for breast and ovarian cancer patients. Investigation of the biology of erbB2 led to the(More)