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A model based approach for rectifying the camera image of the bound document has been developed, i.e., the surface of the document is represented by a general cylindrical surface. The principle of using the model to unwrap the image is discussed. Practically, the skeleton of each horizontal text line is extracted to help estimate the parameter of the model,(More)
This paper presents a statistical approach to the preprocessing of degraded handwritten forms including the steps of binarization and form line removal. The degraded image is modeled by a Markov Random Field (MRF) where the hidden-layer prior probability is learned from a training set of high-quality binarized images and the observation probability density(More)
Offline handwriting recognition of free-flowing Arabic text is a challenging task due to the plethora of factors that contribute to the variability in the data. In this paper, we address some of these sources of variability, and present experimental results on a large corpus of handwritten documents. Specific techniques such as the application of(More)
A vector model based information retrieval of handwritten medical forms is presented in this paper. In order to improve the IR performance on the erroneous output of handwriting recognition (HR) systems, a variation of the vector model is made to estimate the number of occurrences of terms from word segmentation and recognition probabilities. IR Tests show(More)
Many feature extraction approaches for off-line handwriting recognition (OHR) rely on accurate binarization of gray-level images. However, high-quality binarization of most real-world documents is extremely difficult due to varying characteristics of noises artifacts common in such documents. Unlike most of these features, Gabor features do not require(More)
This article proposes a novel approach on how to rectify the photo image of the bound document. The surface of the document is modeled by a cylindrical surface. By the geometry of camera image formation, the equations using the cue of directrixes to map the points on the surface in the 3-D scene to the points on the image plane are achieved. Baselines of(More)
Keyword retrieval in handwritten document images (word spotting) is very challenging given that OCR accuracy is not yet adequate for handwritten scripts, specially with large lexicons. Various proposed approaches build indices on information such as image features or OCR scores and have improved the performance of the traditional approach that builds index(More)