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Protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ) is required for activation of the transcription factor NF-κB induced by signaling via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR); however, the direct activator of PKC-θ is unknown. We report that the kinase GLK (MAP4K3) directly activated PKC-θ during TCR signaling. TCR signaling activated GLK by inducing its direct interaction with the(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can infect T lymphocytes and manifests as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a distinct entity of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, hypercytokinemia, and systemic macrophage activation with hemophagocytosis. In a substantial percentage of HLH patients, the disease may relapse(More)
Proinflammatory cytokines play important roles in insulin resistance. Here we report that mice with a T-cell-specific conditional knockout of HGK (T-HGK cKO) develop systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. This condition is ameliorated by either IL-6 or IL-17 neutralization. HGK directly phosphorylates TRAF2, leading to its lysosomal degradation and(More)
UNLABELLED Ground glass hepatocytes (GGH) in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection harbor HBV pre-S deletion mutants in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and exhibit complex biologic features such as ER stress, DNA damage, and growth advantage. The presence of pre-S mutants in serum has been shown to predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in(More)
T cell activation is dependent upon phosphorylation of MAPKs, which play a critical role in the regulation of immune responses. Dual-specificity phosphatase 14 (DUSP14; also known as MKP6) is classified as a MAPK phosphatase. The in vivo functions of DUSP14 remain unclear. Thus, we generated DUSP14-deficient mice and characterized the roles of DUSP14 in T(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC)-θ is a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the calcium-independent novel PKC subfamily; its expression is restricted to certain tissues and cell types, including T cells. The signals delivered from T cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 costimulatory molecules trigger PKC-θ catalytic activation and membrane translocation to the immunological(More)
The primary infection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may result in fatal infectious mononucleosis or hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in 2 diseases; that is, X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder (XLP) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). XLP is linked to mutations of the SAP/SH2D1A gene with dysregulated T-cell activation in response to EBV infection.(More)
Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a fatal, pro-inflammatory cytokine disorder that is associated with viral infections and immune disorders. Previously, we demonstrated that Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) could down-regulate the SAP gene, enhancing Th1 cytokine secretion in T cells and leading to HPS. The exact mechanism of SAP gene(More)
Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a fatal complication frequently associated with viral infections. In childhood HPS, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the major causative agent, and red blood cells (RBCs) are predominantly phagocytosed by macrophages. To investigate the mechanism of RBC phagocytosis triggered by EBV infection, we adopted a rabbit model of(More)
MAP kinase kinase kinase kinases (MAP4Ks) belong to the mammalian Ste20-like family of serine/threonine kinases. MAP4Ks including MAP4K1/HPK1, MAP4K2/GCK, MAP4K3/GLK, MAP4K4/HGK, MAP4K5/KHS, and MAP4K6/MINK have been reported to induce JNK activation through activating the MAP3K-MAP2K cascade. The physiological roles of MAP4Ks in immunity and inflammation(More)